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Skeletal System

Hard calcified material that makes up the skeleton. Bone
A group of diseases that affect collagen and result in fragile bones. Brittle bone disease
Micro-scoping canals in ossified bone. Canaliculi
Tough, elastic connective tissue found in parts of the body such as the ear. Cartilage
The primary structural protein of connective tissue Collagen
Channels in bone that contain blood vessels and nerves. Haversian canal.
Layers of bone, tissue, or cell walls. Lamellae
Flattened bone cells that come from osteoblasts. Lining Cells
Degenerative joint disease Osteoarthritis
Cells that make bone Osteoblast
Cells that remove bone Osteoclasts
Bone cells Osteocytes.
Bone’s dynamic nature is possible because it is living tissue containing "BLANK", "BLANK", and "BLANK". Cells ,collagen matrix, and minerals.
"BLANK" maintain bone, and their thin cellular projections sense physical stresses on bone. Osteocytes
"BLANK" make bone, and "BLANK" break it down. Osteoblasts and osteoclasts
"BLANK" , performed by osteoclasts, removes calcium from bone so it can enter the bloodstream. Mineral resorption
"BLANK" use calcium to communicate with each other and rely upon its presence in extracellular fluid for normal muscle contraction inhibition. Neurons
Sufficient deficits in plasma calcium, which is called "BLANK" causes tetany, an involuntary and continuous contraction of skeletal muscle Hypocalcemia
Osteoclasts liberate "BLANK" from bone-bound reserves. Calcium
When too much calcium is depleted from bone, "BLANK" results: bones porous of minerals that are weak and brittle. Osteoporosis
Osteoblast secretions allow in bones, a process that is inhibited elsewhere in the body. Mineralization
This mineral deposition is in the form of "BLANK" (a calcium phosphate salt). Hydroxyapatite
"BLANK" produce a highly organized collagen matrix to which extracellular hydroxyapatite binds. Osteoblasts
"BLANK" protein gives bone flexibility, while "BLANK" the that encrust those fibers give them strength. Collagen, Minerals
The symptoms of "BLANK" disease result from the genetically-based corruption of bone’s collagen matrix. Brittle bone
In compact bone, the mineral-laden collagen matrix is organized into long concentric layers, called "BLANK" , like the growth rings of a tree. Lamellae
Between each lamella are microscopic pockets or "BLANK" where bone cells reside. Lacunae
Cell communication between the lacunae occurs through microscopic tunnels,"BLANK" , which transverse lamellae. Canaliculi
A grouping of concentric lamellae is called "BLANK" an and contains a central canal within its innermost ring. Osteon
The central "BLANK" canals are passageways for nerves and blood vessels. Haversian
The Haversian canals and their contents, running parallel within the center of each osteon, connect by way of perpendicular and oblique perforating "BLANK" canals. Volkmann’s
"BLANK" bone has few osteons. Spongy
The spongy bone contained within compact bone allows bone to be lighter and serves as a location for "BLANK" to reside. Bone marrow
"BLANK" marrow is a site of blood formation and plays a role in the immune system Red bone
"BLANK" marrow, present within the medullary cavity of adult long bones, is primarily composed of adipose. Yellow bone
The longest long bone of the adult body is the "BLANK", so it contains the largest amount of yellow bone marrow Femur
"BLANK", those that have a pronounced longitudinal axis, provide the mechanical advantages of levers where they articulate with other bones Long bones
The hinge joint found in each elbow and knee allows"BLANK" of the more distal bone along only one plan. Flexion and extension
The shoulders and hips are locations where long bones articulate with other bones in "BLANK" and "BLANK" joints. Ball and Socket
Ball and socket joints allow for "BLANK" , "BLANK" , "BLANK" and "BLANK" of the associated long bone. Abduction, Adduction, Circumduction and Rotation
"BLANK" (e.g., bones of the wrist, ankles, and patella) have a width similar to their height and articulate as gliding joints. Short bones
Some "BLANK" , such as the plates of the skull, connect with each other at fused joints called sutures. Flat bones
Bones that do not fit into Flat, Short, Long bone shape categories are called Irregular bones.
"BLANK" of the skeleton is made possible through its association with soft tissue: cartilage, tendons, ligaments, and the periosteum that covers bones. Articulation
"BLANK" connecting muscle to bone and ligaments, attaching bone to bone. Tendons
At the location in the skeleton where bones are involved in articulations, bone-joint interfaces are protected by a covering of "BLANK" . Hyaline cartilage
Inflammation and pain of a joint in such a state is called "BLANK" Osteoarthritis
"BLANK" arthritis is caused by an autoimmune reaction rather than wear and tear at the joint Rheumatoid
Hyaline cartilage is also involved in the bone elongation that happens at the "BLANK"(also called the growth plate). Here, newly generated cartilage is turned into bone. Epiphyseal plate
An "BLANK" develops when the plate area stops producing cartilage. Epiphyseal line
The skeleton can be thought of as having two major divisions: the "BLANK" and "BLANK" Axial skeleton and Appendicular skeleton.
The "BLANK" skeleton consists of a skull that shields the brain, a thoracic cage of ribs and sternum that shelters the heart and lungs, and a series of vertebrae in which the spinal. Axial
The axial skeleton plays a major role in "BLANK" and "BLANK" Metabolism and movement.
In the skull, the "BLANK" with the "BLANK" to allow for the motions of mastication (chewing). Mandible articulates, temporal bone
"BLANK" inside the frontal, sphenoid, ethmoid, and maxillary bones are mucous membrane-lined cavities connecting with the nasal cavity. Sinuses
The tiniest bones in the skull are the"BLANK" in the middle ears. Three auditory ossicles
The "BLANK" bone is a point of tongue and larynx attachment, and it is unique in being the only bone that is not connected to the rest of the skeleton. Hyoid
The vertebral column is made of three groups of similarly shaped bones: "BLANK", The cervical, thoracic, and lumbar vertebrae.
On the cranial end of the vertebral column is cervical vertebra number 1 (C1), also known as the "BLANK", Atlas.
Caudal to C1 is C2 of the seven cervical vertebrae. This vertebra is also known as the "BLANK" , and it contains a vertical projection into the atlas, a pivot that allows for the “no” Axis
Between vertebrae are intervertebral discs made of "BLANK" Cartilage.
At the level of the hips, five vertebrae that fuse together by adulthood make up the "BLANK" , which is joined on either side by a left and a right hip bone Sacrum
Caudal to the sacrum the "BLANK" or the "BLANK" Coccyx, Tailbone.
The upper region of the appendicular skeleton includes the "BLANK" made of a right and left scapula and clavicles Pectoral girdle
Upper limbs consist of the "BLANK" and, more distally, a pair of bones called the"BLANK" and "BLANK" that articulate with the carpals of the wrist Humerus, radius and ulna
The "BLANK" of the palm articulate with the of the"BLANK" fingers. Metacarpals, Phalanges
The lower region of the appendicular skeleton includes the left and right hip bones of the "BLANK" Pelvic girdle.
Lower limbs consist of the "BLANK" and, more distally, a pair of bones called the"BLANK" that articulate with the tarsals of the foot. Femur, tibia and fibula
Between the "BLANK" and the "BLANK" of the toes are the metatarsals. Tarsals, phalanges
Created by: bonitasoul
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