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# science 9 semester 1

one of branches of engineering starts with ch chemical
one of branches of engineering starts with ci civil
one of branches of engineering starts with e electricity
one of branches of engineering starts with m mechanical
S in STEM science
T in STEM technology
E in STEM engineering
M in STEM mathematics
what is the equation for Density D=M/V
equation for momentum P= m*v
equation for velocity V = d/t
equation for acceleration A= (vf-vi)/t
equation for Force F = m x a
displacement distance and direction of an object change in position from the starting point
speed distance an object travels per unit of time
velocity the speed and direction of a moving object
Work transfer of energy when a force is applied over a distance
Machine a device that makes doing work easier
Simple Machine a machine that does work with only one movement
Compound Machine a machine that is a combination of two or more simple machines
Efficiency a ratio of the output work to input work
Mechanical Advantage a ratio of the output force to an input force
Energy the ability to cause a change
Kinetic Energy energy a moving object has because of its motion
Potential Energy energy that is stored due to the interactions between objects
Elastic Potential Energy energy that is stored by compressing or stretching an object
Chemical Potential Energy energy that is due to chemical bonds
Gravitational Potential Energy energy that is due to the gravitational force between objects
what is the equation for work W(j)=f*d
what is the equation for kinetic energy KE = ½ x (mass x velocity2)
law of conservation of energy states that energy cannot be created or destroyed
mechanical energy a sum of the potential and kinetic energy of the objects in a system
power the rate at which energy is converted
temperature a measure of the average kinetic energy of all the particles that make up an object
thermal energy sum of the kinetic and potential energy of the particles that make an object
heat energy transferred between objects due to a temperature difference between those objects
specific heat an amount of heat needed to raise the temperature of one kg of a material one degree Celcius
conduction transfer of thermal energy by collisions between particles that make up matter
convection transfer of thermal energy in a fluid by the movement of warmer and cooler fluid from one place to another
radiation transfer of energy by electromagnetic
thermal insulator a material through which thermal energy moves slowly
thermodynamics the study of the relationship between thermal energy, heat, and work
the first law of thermodynamics states that if the mechanical energy of a system is constant the increase in the thermal energy of the system equals the sum of the thermal energy transferred into the system and the work done on the system
the second law of thermodynamics states that energy spontaneously spreads from regions of higher concentration to regions of lower concentration
internal combustion engine heat engine that burns fuel inside the engine in chambers of cylinders
force push or pull exerted on an object
friction a force that opposes the sliding motion between two touching surfaces
Gravity attractive force between two objects that depend on the masses of the objects and the distance between them
Weight gravitational force exerted on an object
Net Force sum of all the forces that are acting on an object
Newton's 1st law of motion states than an object moving at a constant velocity keeps moving at that velocity unless an unbalanced force acts on it
Inertia tendency of an object to resist any change in its motion
Newton's 2nd law of motion states that acceleration of an object is in the same direction as the net force on the object and the acceleration equals the net force divided by its mass
Newton's 3rd law of motion states that when one object exerts on a second object the second object exerts a force on the first object that is equal in strength and in opposite direction
Air resistance force that opposes the motion of objects that move through the air
Terminal Velocity the maximum speed an object will reach when falling through a substance such as air
Free Fall describes the fall of an object on which only the force of gravity is acting
Centripetal Force a force that is directed toward the center of a curved or circular path
Law of conservation of momentum states that if no external forces act on a group of objects their total momentum does not change
prototype very first model of a new invention
innovation new improvement to make things better
invention new creation
discovery find something new
engineering building and designing
Created by: issaca6903

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