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Osmosis a process by which molecules of a solvent tend to pass through a semipermeable membrane from a less concentrated solution into a more concentrated one.
Diffusion Diffusion is the movement of a substance from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration. Diffusion happens in liquids and gases because their particles move randomly from place to place.
Cell the smallest structural and functional unit of an organism, which is typically microscopic and consists of cytoplasm and a nucleus enclosed in a membrane.
Plant cell and what they include Plant cells are eukaryotic cells present in green plants. Nucleus, cytoplasm, mitochondria , cell membrane ,vacuole,chloroplast ,cell wall ,ribosome
Animal cell and what they include They are eukaryotic cells, meaning that they have a true nucleus and specialized structures called organelles that carry out different functions. Nucleus,cytoplasm,mitochondria , cell membrane,ribosome
Bacterial cells and what they include Bacteria are prokaryotes. Cell membrane,cell wall,cytoplasm,no true nucleus,plasmids
Microscopy The examination of minute objects by means of a microscope, an instrument which provides an enlarged image of an object not visible with the naked eye.
Electron microscopy Immune electron microscopy -- Electron microscopy of biological specimens to which a specific antibody has been bound
Magnification The act or process of enlarging the physical appearance or image of something.
Magnification equation Magnification = image size / real size
Specialised cells Specialised cells are cells that have developed certain characteristics to perform a particular function. ... Function - Red blood cells carry oxygen around the body when it is bound to a protein called haemoglobin.
Cell differentiate Cellular differentiation is the process where a cell changes from one cell type to another. Usually, the cell changes to a more specialized type. Differentiation occurs numerous times during the development of a multicellular organism.
What are sperm cells specialised for? Reproduction - male to female dna. It has a long tail and streamlined head to help it swim to the egg.There are lots of mitochondria in the cell to provide the energy needed and it also carries enzymes in its head to digest through the egg cell membrane.
What are nerve cells specialised for? Rapid signalling - it carries electric signals from one part of the body to another. These cells are long (to cover more distance) and have branched connections at their end to connect to other nerve cells and form a network throughout the body .
What are muscle cells specialised for? Contraction- the fiction is to contract quickly. These cells are long (so that they have space to contract ) and contain lots of mitochondria to generate the energy needed for contraction.
What are roots hair cells specialised for? Absorbing water and minerals - root hair cells are cells on the surface of pant roots which grow into long hairs that stick out into the soil. This gives the plant a big surface area for absorbing water and mineral ions from the soil.
What are phloem and xylem cells specialised for? They form phloem and xylem tubes which transport substances such as food and water around the plants. the cells are joined end to end for tubes. Xylem cells are hollow in the centre and phloem have a very few subcellular structures so stuff flow through.
Embryonic stem cell Embryonic stem cells are pluripotent stem cells derived from the inner cell mass of a blastocyst, an early-stage pre-implantation embryo. Human embryos reach the blastocyst stage 4–5 days post fertilization, at which time they consist of 50–150 cells.
Differentiation It’s the process by which a cell changes to become specialised for its job.
Stem cells Undifferentiated cells and they can differentiate into different types of cells depending on what instruction they’re given.
Where are stem cells found? Found in early embryos and can turn into any kind of cell. Adults also gave stem cells but only found in certain places like bone marrow. Unlike embryonic stem cells adults can’t turn into any cell type at all only certain e.g blood cells.
What can happen to stem cells? Embryos and bone marrow can be grown in a lab to produce clones (generally identical cells) and made to differentiate into specialised cells to use in medicine to research.
Chromosomes Contain genetic information and they are coiled up lengths of dna molecules. Each chromosome has large numbers of genes, different genes control the development of different characteristics. Body cells have two copies of chromosomes one mother one father.
Cell cycle Body cells in multicellular organisms divide to produce new cells as part of the cell cycle. The stage gene the cell divides is mitosis. Multicellular organisms use mitosis to grow or replace cells that have been damaged. Two new identical cells are made.
Growth and dna replication When a cell isn’t dividing the dna is all spread out in long strings. Before it divides the cell has to grow and increase the amount of subs cellular structures such as mitochondria. The dna duplicates and forms x shaped chromosomes,exactly identical.
Growth and dna replication with mitosis Chromosomes line at the centre of the cell, cell fibres pull them apart. Chromosomes go to opposite ends of the cell. Membrane form around each set of chromosomes. There’s two new cells and the cytoplasm and cell membrane divide for two daughter cells .
Prokaryotic cells replicate by binary fission. In binary the cells split into two . The circular dna and plasmid replicate. The cells get bigger and the dna strands move to opposite ends. Cytoplasm divides ,two new cells formed and two daughter cells produced each with a copy of the circular dna.
Active transport When a substance goes against its concentration gradient .
Created by: zoya x



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