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Immune System

The "BLANK" system responds to substances on the surfaces of agents that the body perceives as foreign. Immune
These substances, called "BLANK" , serve as identification badges that allow the immune system to detect agents that are genuinely dangerous to the body—what are known as "BLANK" antigens , pathogen
The antigens of viruses, parasitic protists, or parasitic bacteria appropriately trigger a "BLANK" immune response. However, the immune system can also become activated by antigens found on harmless materials that enter the body. Defensive
"BLANK" are the immune system’s response to foreign agents that are not pathogens. Allergies
If the immune system mistakes part of the body as a pathogen, the resulting pathology is considered an "BLANK" Autoimmune disease
The body's first line of defense is the external aspect of the "BLANK" immune system, a collection of "BLANK" barriers innate, nonspecific
The innate immune system does not defend against specific "BLANK" , and it incorporates parts of many other body systems. Pathogens
The "BLANK" aspect of the innate immune system includes skin and hair, two structures of the integumentary system that are external physical barriers to the entry of pathogens into the body. External
Normal "BLANK" (commensal microorganisms) live on the skin and other substrates lining areas in contact with the external environment, such as the digestive system, respiratory system and parts of the female reproductive system. Bacterial floral
Antimicrobial substances in mucus, tears, and saliva are additional external barriers of the "BLANK" system. Innate immune
If the external barrier is breached, the innate immune system’s "BLANK" are activated Internal defenses
This second line of defense is the internal aspect of the innate immune system, a collection of nonspecific cellular responses such as "BLANK", "BLANK" , "BLANK" Inflammation, production of interferon, and ingestion of pathogen by phagocytes.
One type of large phagocytic white blood cell is the Macrophage.
After consuming the pathogen, the macrophage is able to put parts of the ingested antigens on its cell membrane to alert patrolling "BLANK" . When a macrophage takes on this role,it is called an "BLANK" T cells, antigen presenting cells.
"BLANK" cells and "BLANK" cells can also function as APCs. Dendritic, B cells
Another function of macrophages is to produce "BLANK" that broadcast the location of pathogens to other white blood cells Cell-signaling molecules, cytokines,
Other cells of the innate immune system produce "BLANK" which triggers capillary permeability and vasodilation. Histamine
The effects of histamine make it easier for more "BLANK" cells to leak from "BLANK" into the area in need of defense White blood, capillaries
Inflammation is the resulting "BLANK" , "BLANK" , "BLANK" and "BLANK" in an area of defense by innate immunity. Redness, swelling, heat, and pain
If the pathogens at the site are viruses, some types of white blood cells are able to secrete "BLANK" that inhibit virus replication. Interferons
The body's third line of defense is the "BLANK" immune system, a collection of cellular responses triggered by the internal presence of specific antigens. Adaptive
In contrast to the innate immune system, the adaptive immune system develops "BLANK" defenses to particular antigens. Specific
Adaptive immunity deals with perceived pathogens at a "BLANK" rate. However, once the defense is created, a cellular memory of that defense is able to trigger a "BLANK" response when the antigen is present again. Slower, fast
"BLANK" are a category of white blood cells that include natural killer cells, Bcells, T-cells, and what T-cells become. Lymphocytes
T-cells undergo maturation in the Thymus.
In the presence of an antigen, the mature T-cells become activated into "BLANK", "BLANK", and "BLANK" Helper Tcells, cytotoxic T-cells, and memory cells
Helper T-cells secrete "BLANK" a chemical messengers that trigger the action of other cells. interleukins,
One of these actions is the attack of foreign cells by the Cytotoxic T-cell.
T-cells that become "BLANK" cells respond so quickly to an antigen upon re exposure that the body is immune to developing symptoms from the associated pathogen the second time. Memory cells
These T-cells are involved in "BLANK" immunity, a type of adaptive immunity in which T lymphocytes attack parasitic worms, cancer cells, transplanted tissues, or cells that contain pathogens. Cell-mediated,
One of the critical roles of helper T-cells is to activate "BLANK" cells lymphocytes that mature in and make antibodies in response to antigens. B-cells, bone marrow
The B-cells multiply rapidly into cells called "BLANK" cells that produce and secrete large amounts of an antibody against a specific antigen. Plasma
"BLANK", also called "BLANK",, are blood proteins that have a variable region that fits a specific antigen. These "BLANK" tag pathogens for later destruction. Antibodies, immunoglobulins, antibodies
This kind of adaptive immunity is called "BLANK" immunity also known as "BLANK" immunity. Antibody-mediated, humoral immunity
"BLANK" is caused by a body’s acquisition of antibodies Adaptive immunity
Temporary "BLANK" immunity can be gained naturally through the placenta or breast milk, or artificially by receiving a serum containing antibodies. Passive
"BLANK" immunity is protection against a specific pathogen resulting from the body’s production of antibodies in response to the presence of its antigens. Active
A "BLANK" , which is a solution of dead or weakened pathogens, can also be introduced into the body for the purpose of stimulating antibody production against that pathogen. Vaccine
The group of proteins in blood serum and plasma that works with antibodies to destroy particulate antigens. Complement
Antigen-presenting cells that process antigen material and present it to T-cells. Dendritic cell
An antibody Immunoglobulin
A collection of nonspecific barriers and cellular responses that serve as an inborn first and second line of defense against pathogens. Innate immune system
A large white blood cell that ingests foreign material. Macrophage
A lymphocyte that responds to an antigen upon reintroduction. Memory Cell
Ingestion of particles by a cell or phagocyte. Phagocytosis
A white blood cell that produces a single type of antibody. Plasma Cell
White blood cells that mature in the thymus and participate in immune response. T-cell
Created by: bonitasoul
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