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Genitourinary system

The primary organ of the urinary system is the kidney.
The functional units of the kidney are microscopic nephrons.
The kidney is divided into two major regions: The renal cortex, which surrounds an area called the renal medulla
Within the cortex, is the "BLANK" of the nephron. Glomerulus
The glomerulus is a network of "BLANK" where blood pressure pushes water, salt, glucose, amino acids, and urea from the blood Capillaries
All of the material leaving the blood through the walls of the glomerular capillaries is called the Filtrate.
Filtrate is collected by the "BLANK" , which surrounds the glomerulus. Bowman’s capsule
From the Bowman’s capsule, filtrate moves into a highly convoluted tubule before dipping down into the level of the Kidney’s medulla.
This part of the tubule "BLANK" , is where glucose and other useful solutes are reabsorbed back into the blood through the walls of surrounding capillaries. Proximal tubule
After the proximal tubule dips down into the renal medulla, the remaining filtrate flows through the switch-back bend of the "BLANK" , then continues back into the cortex through the "BLANK" . Loop of Henle, Distal tubule.
Like the proximal tubule, the Loop of Henle and the distal tubule are also sites of "BLANK" movement of useful material from filtrate back into the bloodstream. Tubular re-absorption,
During tubular re-absorption, osmotic pressure causes more than "BLANK" of the water in filtrate to return to the blood plasma. 80%
In the renal cortex, distal tubules from numerous "BLANK" empty into each collecting duct. Nephrons
As the collecting ducts transport the contained liquid on its second journey through the medulla, the remaining filtrate has its final opportunity for . "BLANK" Water re-absorption.
The remaining filtrate has its final opportunity for water re-absorption, here the filtrate becomes more concentrated as "BLANK" Urine
Collecting ducts join and empty their urine into the "BLANK" of the kidney. renal pelvis
The renal pelvis is the center of the kidney, where urine collects before moving into the "BLANK" , the duct that will bring urine to the bladder. Ureter
There is "BLANK" ureter descending from each kidney One
Before being excreted from the body, urine is stored in the Urinary bladder.
The urinary bladder is a hollow muscular organ that holds "BLANK" of urine. 400 to 800 mL
The urinary bladder contains sensors that communicate with the "BLANK" . Central nervous system
A voluntarily controlled, such as the "BLANK" the external sphincter opens during urination, allowing urine to flow into the urethra. Somatic portion of the nervous system
The "BLANK" carries urine from the urinary bladder to the outside of the body. Urethra
When the bladder is full of urine, a signal from the "BLANK" relaxes the internal spincter. Autonomic portion of the nervous system
There are three primary functions of the kidneys and the urinary system: 1. The kidneys filter metabolic waste from the blood. 2. The kidneys regulate electrolyte and fluid balance in the blood. 3. Fluid balance by the kidneys affect blood volume in the cardiovascular system, resulting in change in blood flow rate & BP.
Kidneys are primarily responsible for filtering blood coming from the "BLANK" and leaving the kidney by way of the "BLANK" . Renal artery, renal vein
The renal artery and renal vein filtration also stabilize "BLANK" in the body. Water balance
Structures within the nephron control diffusion of particular solutes and osmosis (movement of water) after the solutes and water have been collected from the Glomerulus.
The amount of filtrate collected into the Bowman’s capsule is regulated by the "BLANK" within the glomerulus. This pressure is generally held constant regardless of changes in systemic blood pressure. Blood pressure
As the filtrate moves through the "BLANK" , "BLANK" , "BLANK" and "BLANK" - re absorption permits regulated amounts of certain useful solutes and water to reenter the blood. In the process kidneys create waste laden-urine Proximal tubule, Loop of Henle, distal tubule, and then the collection duct,
Waste removed from the blood by the kidneys includes excess Electrolytes and water
Excreted are cellular byproducts and substances acquired from the environment that have the potential to poison the body, three metabolic byproducts that must be kept at low levels in the blood are nitrogenous waste: Urea, uric acid and creatine.
The kidneys regulate how much water is lost from our body to urine. This process is primarily influenced by the amount of "BLANK" in the blood. Sodium chloride (NaCl)
Sodium chloride enters the filtrate from the glomerulus, but returns to the blood, with the "BLANK" leading the chloride ions. The amount of their re absorption affects osmotic pressure. Sodium ions
The amount of water re absorption is dependent on this "BLANK" . A common phrase for remembering this concept is, “Where sodium goes, water follows.” Osmotic pressure
"BLANK" is the vehicle that carries ingested and metabolic water to our kidneys. Because "BLANK" causes reduced blood volume, it lowers blood pressure as a result. Blood, dehydration
If more than enough water is taken into body, blood volume (and blood pressure) "BLANK" until mechanisms are engage to bring water levels closer to a homeostatic range. Rises
Collecting ducts of the kidneys lose their ability to permit water re-absorption, causing urine to become more "BLANK" . Dilute.
When blood pressure is out of the homeostatic range, and it is not caused by dehydration or over-hydration, kidneys are employed by the "BLANK" system to return blood press Cardiovascular
If blood pressure drops, one way it can be returned to homeostasis is by increasing blood volume through the re-absorption of water from Renal tubule filtrate.
In the "BLANK" system, low blood pressure causes an increase in water re-absorption along with other mechanisms that raise blood pressure. Renin-angiotensin-aldosterone
"BLANK" is an enzyme released by the kidneys when reduced blood pressure is detected by baroreceptors in the aorta and carotid arteries. Renin
Renin creates "BLANK" from "BLANK" produced by the liver. Angiotensin I, Angiotensinogen
The lungs and kidneys produce an enzyme that converts "BLANK" to "BLANK" . Angiotensin I, Angiotensin II
"BLANK" acts to restore blood volume and blood pressure by constricting blood vessels, stimulating thirst, and stimulating production of aldosterone and antidiuretic hormone. Angiotensin II
"BLANK" is a hormone secreted by the adrenal gland that increases re absorption of sodium ions. This leads to an increase in re absorption of chloride ions and water. Aldosterone
The other secretion stimulated by angiotensin II is Antidiuretic hormone.
A "BLANK" is any substance that causes water to be lost from the body through urination. Diuretic
"BLANK" hormone is secreted by the "BLANK" , and it increases the amount of water able to be reabsorbed from the collecting duct. Antidiuretic , Pituitary gland
The effects of aldosterone and antidiuretic hormone are to "BLANK" blood volume while decreasing water lost from the body in urine. Increase
The system comprised of the heart and blood vessels Cardiovascular system
The pair of organs that regulate fluid balance and filter waste from the blood. Kidneys
The part of the kidney responsible for filtering and excretion. Nephron
The two branches of the abdominal aorta that supply the kidneys. Renal Arteries
The outer layer of the kidney. Renal Cortex
The innermost part of the kidney. Renal Medulla
The center of the kidney where urine collects before moving to the ureter. Renal Pelvis
A vein carrying blood from a kidney to the inferior vena cava. Renal Vein
An enzyme releases by the kidney when reduced blood pressure is detected by barorecptors in aorta and carotid arteries. Renin
The main nitrogenous part of urine. Urea
The duct that conducts urine from the kidney to the bladder. Ureter
The structure that stores urine in the body until elimination. Urinary bladder
Liquid waste matter excreted by the kidneys. Urine
Created by: bonitasoul



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