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Bio Cumulative

Carbohydrates Carbon, hydrogen and oxygen (CH2O)𝑛 or 1C:2H:1O
Proteins consist of one or more polypeptide chains (and sometimes additions) Denaturing proteins can alter the structure and function
Primary structure of proteins The order of the amino acids in the chain
Secondary Structure of Proteins The strand of amino acids twists to form a helix
Tertiary Structure of Proteins The three-dimensional structure formed by the folding of the helix
Lipids Fats, oils, waxes. Most lipids don’t dissolve in water because they are nonpolar
where do essential amino acids come from? our diet
Phospholipids form a double-layered sheet in water – basis for membranes! Molecule has a hydrophilic head and a hydrophobic tail
Enzymes Speeds up chemical reactions. Usually splits or joins other molecules (substrates)
Glucose Main product of photosynthesis, an important source of energy in all living cells
Sucrose Disaccharide (type of carbon) 2 linked monosaccharides, Short-term energy storage, Main sugar transported through plants
Polysaccharides (type of carbon) More than 2 monosaccharides linked, Most common organic compound
Starch or long-term storage in plants
Cellulose main structural polymer in plant cell walls
Ionic Bond One atom transfers an electron to another, results in ions, Two ions attract each other, Found in salts, acids and bases
Covalent Bond Atoms share electrons, Stronger than ionic or hydrogen bonds, Don’t dissolve in water, strongest bond
Polar Covalent Bond Bonds that are more covalent (more even) are stronger; bonds that are more ionic (less even) are weaker. Polar molecules result when molecules are asymmetrical
Hydrogen Bond form as a result of attraction between the positively charged hydrogen atoms in polar molecules and negatively charged atoms in other polar molecules. Weak (7 to 10% the strength of covalent bonds), cause both cohesion and adhesion in water
Prokaryotic Cells and Eukaryotic Cells both have Cell wall (in plants and lots of other organisms, but not all), Protoplasm, Plasma membrane, Cytoplasm, and Cytoskeleton
Eukaryotic Cells Nucleus, Organelles
Eukaryotes: Nucleus Nuclear envelope with nuclear pores and DNA
Eukaryotes: Internal membranes Endoplasmic reticulum and others
Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum studded with ribosomes
Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum secretes lipids
Eukaryotes: Organelles include mitochondria, DNA , Cellular respiration
Golgi Apparatus modifications , packaging into vesicles, delivery
Cell walls with cellulose (plant cells) polysaccharides- mostly cellulose, green algae and plants, cross linked by other molecules
Chloroplasts and other plastids (plant cells) photosynthesis occurs in chloroplasts
Chromoplast (plant cells) Synthesis and storage of carotenoid pigments
Vacuoles (plant cells) Water balance and internal pressure, Storage (Sugars, proteins, Pigments, Toxins), Inorganic crystals
Alternation of Generations sporophyte (2n) > sporangium (2n) > meiosis (diploid to haploid) > spore (n) > gametophyte (n) > gamete + gamete (n+n) > fertilization (haploid to diploid) > zygote (2n) > sporophyte (2n)
Moss Life Cycle gametophyte dominant ; sporophyte> capsule >meiosis >spore (n) > spore wall buds > gametophyte developing from bud (n) > antheridium(n) or archegonium (n)> fertilization > zygote in female (2n) > sporophyte begins to sprout -> sporophyte + gametophyte
Fern life cycle sporophyte w sporangium underneath leaf (2n) > meiosis > spores (n) > germination of spores > archegonium on top (n) , antheridium on bottom (n)> fertilization via water > zygote (2n) > sporophyte develops sporophyte is dominant
Gymnosperm Life Cycle sporophyte > pollen cone > microsporangium and megasporangium > meiosis > 4 microspores and megaspore > mitosis > pollen grain and megagametophyte > pollination via wind > fertilization > 2 sperm cells zygotes > one survives > seed > sporophyte
Characteristics of Bryophytes (non-vascular plants) No sophisticated vascular tissue ,(xylem or phloem), Small (limited internal transport , require surface area ,no tough xylem for support) , Soft (no tough xylem), Require external water for sexual reproduction ,Dominant gametophyte
Importance of Sphagnum bogs Unique communities – carnivorous plants! Water filtration, seasonal water storage and flood control
Groups of seedless vascular plants Ferns ,Club moss , Spike moss , Horsetail
Advantages of vascular tissues Sporophytes have vascular tissue; in all vascular plants, the sporophyte is dominant Drier habitats Taller, larger form than nonvascular plants First vascular plants did not produce seeds.
Major Characteristics of Gymnosperms (“naked seed plants”), Produce seeds, but not flowers or fruits ,Seeds are exposed on the surface of modified leaves,Reproductive structures are in strobili or cones, Leaves are modified to bear sporangia, Sporangia contain spores, No ovary
Strobili or cones clusters of modified leaves
Four Groups of Gymnosperms Ginkgos, Cycads, Gnetophytes, Conifers
Ginkgos (Phylum Ginkgophyta) are extinct, except for a single species, Ginkgo biloba Ginkgo biloba may have only been preserved in cultivation No fruits – fleshy seed coat Ginkgo biloba is dioecious (male plants and female plants)
Cycads (Phylum Cycadophyta) are dioecious have some specialized roots with symbiotic cyanobacteria Cyanobacteria provide nitrogen to plants, plants provide stability and resources to cyanobacteria Guam Toxin concentrated in seeds caused neurodegenerative Lytico-bodig disease
Apical meristems Present in all plants responsible for growth in length (primary growth) Tips of roots and shoots – in buds Produces primary meristems protected by buds in stems
What are the primary apical meristems ? Protoderm, Ground Meristem, Procambium
Protoderm develops into dermal tissues
Ground meristem develops into ground tissues
Procambium develops into vascular tissues
Lateral meristems only in woody plants responsible for growth in diameter (secondary growth) cylinders in stems and roots
What are the two types of lateral meristems ? Vascular Cambium, Cork Cambium
Vascular cambium produces vascular tissues (for transport)
Cork cambium produces cork (outer bark)
Created by: 1268511196664965



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