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Genetics Vocabulary

Genetics, Heredity Alleles

TermDefinition
Alleles Different forms of a gene (Letter combinations from parents)
Heredity Passing of traits from parents to offspring
Phenotype Physical appearance of an organism (visible traits)
Genotype inherited combination of alleles - AA, Aa, aa (genetic makeup)
Homozygous two of the same alleles for a given trait - AA, aa, BB, bb
Heterozygous having two different alleles for a given trait - Aa, Bb, Cc (hybrid/crossbred)
Punnett Square A chart that shows all the possible combinations of alleles that can result from a genetic cross
Dominant Trait this gene trait covers up the recessive when paired with it
Recessive Trait this gene trait is blocked or covered up by the dominant trait
Trait distinguishing characteristic passed from parent to offspring
Gene A segment of DNA on a chromosome that codes for a specific trait
Chromosome a long coiled structure of DNA (you have 46 of them)
DNA deoxyribonucleic acid located in the nucleus (hereditary material)
Selective Breeding The breeding of organisms for desired characteristics
Gregor Mendel Austrian monk commonly known as the "father of genetics," used pea-plants to discover basic patterns of inheritance, allowing him to identify "dominant" and "recessive" traits.
Pedigree A chart is a diagram that shows the occurrence and appearance or phenotypes of a particular gene or organism and its ancestors from one generation to the next
Carrier is a person or organism that has inherited a recessive allele for a genetic trait (Heterozygous)
Sex Linked Trait A trait associated with a gene that is carried only by the male or female parent
XY Boy Chromosomes
XX Girl Chromosomes
Gamete The sex cells used in reproduction (egg, sperm, pollen). They have half the number of chromosomes as a body cell
Zygote The first cell of a new organism, formed after a sperm and egg join together during fertilization
 



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