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Genetics middle school

genetics the study of heredity
heredity the passing of traits from parents to offspring
Gregor Mendel Father of Genetics, a monk who studied heredity of pea plants and how traits are passed from one generation to another
traits physical characteristics of an organism
genes factors that control traits-found on chromosomes, inherited in pairs from parents
alleles different forms of a gene Ex: brown eyes/blue eyes
dominant traits stronger traits represented by a capitol letter- always show up when the the allele is present in a gene pair
recessive traits weaker traits represented by a lower case letter-is masked or hidden when paired with a dominant allele in a gene pair
homozygous/purebred an organism that has genes that alike for a particular trait ex: 2 genes for tall (TT) or 2 genes for short (tt)
heterozygous/hybrid an organism that has 2 different genes for a particular trait ex: Tt-one gene for tall (T) and one for short (t)
Punnett Square chart used to show probability of possible gene combinations in a cross between 2 organisms
phenotype physical characteristics of an organism ex: brown eyes, purple flowers
genotype the gene makeup or allele combination ex: BB homozygous dominant Bb hybrid BB homozygous recessive
meiosis cell process that produces sex cells (sperm and egg) sex cells have half the number of chromosomes as the original cell
chromosomes rod shaped structures found in the nucleus/contain genes
sex chromosomes specialized chromosomes that determine the gender of offspring EX: XX=female XY=male
gametes sex cells (sperm and egg)
zygote fertilized egg cell
sexual reproduction reproduction that requires 2 parents, offspring gets half of their genes from each parent, offspring are genetically different, creates greatest genetic diversity
asexual reproduction reproduction that requires 1 parent, offspring are genetically identical to the parent, no genetic diversity Ex: binary fission, budding, cuttings from plants
mitosis cell division that forms 2 new identical cells with the same number of chromosomes
Created by: Littlegrif