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7th Gr Sci 2nd 9wks

Body Systems: Digestive, Circulatory, Respiratory, Integumentary, & Excretory

Functions of the Digestive System To break down nutrients form the foods we eat and turns it into energy. The food that is NOT absorbed becomes wastes.
Mouth Contains saliva which contains enzymes which break down food. (Chemical Change)
Esophagus A tube that connects your mouth and stomach. Physical Change Peristalsis is the contractions of the esophagus that push the food towards the stomach.
Stomach Contains acids and enzymes that break down the food. (Chemical Change) The stomach also churns (turns), this is a physical change.
Small Intestine Contains more digestive fluids which help break down food. Here is where most of the nutrients and food are absorbed. Chemical change About 20 feet long uncoiled.
Large Intestine Absorbs water and salt. This is where anything that didn’t get absorbed goes- this is the waste also called the feces. The large intestine is also called the colon and is about 5-7 feet.
Accessory Organs Food does not pass through these organs. They produce chemicals needed for chemical digestion.
Gall Bladder BILE is stored in the gall bladder until food is present in the small intestine. When food is present, the gall bladder releases bile to breakdown fat in the small intestine.
Liver Produces and secretes a green liquid - BILE - that breaks down FAT in the small intestine. It also processes and purifies blood from the small intestine.
Pancreas Releases hormones needed for digestion in the small intestine. INSULIN is needed to help process glucose for the body as energy and maintain proper sugar levels in blood stream.
Bile A green liquid that breaks down FAT in the small intestine.
Insulin Helps process glucose (sugar) as energy for the body.
Circulatory System AKA Cardiovascular System
Circulatory System Structures Blood Vessels (arteries & veins & capillaries) Heart Blood
Arteries Carry oxygenated blood AWAY from heart
Veins Carry deoxygenated blood TOWARD the heart
Function of the Circulatory System Delivers oxygen, carbon dioxide, nutrients water and wastes.
Blood is ... ... BRIGHT RED in the arteries due to lots of oxygen. We DO NOT have BLUE BLOOD. Veins look blue due to the reflection of light off the veins.
Blood Pressure As blood is pumped, it places a force against the walls of the blood vessels. A healthy blood pressure is 120/80.
Cytoplasm Cell organelle with similar functions as the Circulatory System – (Removes waste material, Helps in cell respiration, Converts glucose into energy)
Function of the Respiratory System To supply the blood with oxygen to be delivered to the body’s cells.
Cell Membrane ... corresponds most closely to the respiratory system because it allows for the exchange of gasses into and out of the cell.
Structures of the Respiratory System Nose and Nasal Cavity Pharynx Larynx Trachea Bronchi Lungs Alveoli Diaphragm
Upper Respiratory System Filters, warms, and moistens air
Sinuses Cavities in skull Lighten head Warm & moisten air
Nasal cavity Produces mucus Filters, warms, and moistens air Olfaction
Pharynx Passageway for air and food
Respiratory Muscles Cause breathing
Intercostal Muscles Move ribs during breathing
Diaphragm Muscle sheet between chest and abdominal cavities with a role in breathing
Lower Respiratory System Exchanges gases
Epiglottis Covers larynx during swallowing
Larynx Air passageway Prevents food and drink from entering lower respiratory system Produces voice
Lungs Structures that contain alveoli and air passageways Allow exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide between atmosphere and blood
Trachea Connects larynx with bronchi leading to each lung Conducts air to and from bronchi
Bronchi Two branches of trachea that conduct air from trachea to each lung
Bronchioles Narrow passageways to conduct air from bronchi to alveoli
Alveoli Microscopic chambers for gas exchange
Respiration vs. Cellular Respiration RESPIRATION is the exchange of CO2 and O2 between the alveoli of the lungs and the red blood cells. CELL RESPIRATION occurs in the mitochondria. When O2 chemically combines with glucose to create energy for the body cells.
System Interactions The circulatory, respiratory and muscular systems work together by – The circulatory system ... ... carries blood to and from working muscles, delivering O2 and removing the waste gas CO2 via the respiratory system.
System Interactions The circulatory, respiratory and muscular systems work together by – The muscular system ... ... converts chemical energy (glucose) in the presence of O2 inside the mitochondria into kinetic energy for muscle movement.
System Interactions The circulatory, respiratory and muscular systems work together by – The respiratory system ... ... exchanges the gases O2 and CO2 through respiration (breathing in & out).
The Skin The skin is the largest organ in the human body The skin makes up 16% of your body weight. Skin is an organ made up of three different layers of cells.
Functions of the Skin Body Temp: 98.6 deg F. Sweat hot/shiver cold. Protecti: waterproof barrier against UV rays infections injury bangs. Sensory organ: Nerve cells sense ext stimulus Excretion: sweat rids wastes- water salt hormones urea. Mineral prod: sunlight -> vit D
Structures of the Integumentary System Sweat Pore Hair Shaft Melanocytes Sebaceous Gland Haur Erector Muscle Hair Follicle Blood Vessels Pacinian Corpuscle Epidermis Dermis Subcutaneous Tissue
Epidermis Upper layer of skin Thinnest layer Outermost cells are dead and repel water Epidermal cells rub off all the time New cells are constantly produced at the base of the epidermis These cells move up and replace old cells that rub off
Dermis Second layer of skin Thicker layer that contains: -Blood vessels -Nerves for pain, cold, heat, and pressure -Muscles to move hairs -Oil glands -Sweat glands
Subcutaneous Layer Fatty layer below the dermis Insulates the body to prevent heat loss Stores extra fat for later use by the body
What is the main organ of the integumentary system? The skin
What are the functions of the integumentary system? Protection from UV light Protection from injury and infection Removal of wastes Regulation of body temperature Sense organ Produces vitamin D
How does the skin help maintain stable internal conditions while external conditions are changing? Cold temp is sensed by skin & cause shivering - hairs stand up/help trap body heat Hot temp is sensed by skin & induce sweat to allow evaporative cooling of skin Pressure & pain sensors in skin trigger response from nervous and muscular systems
What is UV radiation? High frequency energy from the sun which can damage cells and DNA if not filtered by the Earth’s atmosphere and ozone layer
How does skin protect against UV radiation? Producing melanin or pigment in the epidermis to shield the skin from UV light
What are the results of too much UV exposure? Sunburn (from mild to severe) Tanning Cell and DNA damage Skin cancers
What is the result of injury to the skin, such as burns? Pain Redness Blistering Peeling of skin layers Bleeding Charring and actual burning away in extreme burn cases
Major organs of the excretory System The Excretory system includes organs that also belong to other systems. The organs you will need to know are: 1. Kidneys 3. Lungs 2. Skin 4. Large intestine or Colon
What does the excretory system do? rids the body of wastes created from chemical reactions inside the body.
What systems create the excretory system? 4 systems rid the body of wastes – Digestive Sys-eliminates solid wastes–fece Urinary Sys-eliminates liquid wastes – urine Respiratory Sys–exhales wastes=gas CO2, liq H2O, heat - thermal energy Integumentary Sys-skin excretes liquid wastes -sweat
Excretory - Digestive Functions Creates wastes: food travels to the stomach then passes through the intestine and edits. This is when you poop (feces).
Excretory - Urinary Functions Creates wastes: blood carries liquid to your body then the waste is carried to your kidneys which then creates urine which is stored in your bladder until you have to use the restroom.
Excretory - Respiratory Functions Creates wastes: When we inhale we take in oxygen which is transferred through our blood to our cells. Your cells then use oxygen and produce waste carbon dioxide, which we exhale.
Excretory - Integumentary Functions Creates wastes and sweat: When you are fighting infection your body makes a barrier. When you are hot your body releases a liquid called sweat.
Excretory - Cellular Respiration Functions Equation – 6 O2 + C6H12O6  6 CO2 + 6 H2O + Thermal Energy The oxygen we breath chemically reacts with the food we eat.  We exhale carbon dioxide & water & heat to rid our body of these wastes.
Cell organelles and the excretory system Cell organelles perform same function as organs & organ systems do in body. Excretory System - Vacuole stores wastes until they can be excreted out of cell into blood stream. Cell Membrane allows wastes to be excreted out of cell into blood stream
Created by: SHigh



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