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Pattern of evolution; a large number of species form to occupy different niches Adaptive radiation
A result of geographical isolation Allopatric speciation
Due to isolating mechanisms other than geography- happens in the same place (due to a number of niches Sympatric speciation
Relative Proportion of alleles in a population Allele frequency
Animals won't reproduce due to differences in courtship, etc. Behavioural isolation
Evidence for evolution; organisms separated by geography become increasingly different Biogeography
Pattern of evolution; one species or group changes its genetic composition in response to a genetic change in another Co-evolution
Evidence for evolution; homologous structures (related species), analogous structures (unrelated species) Comparative anatomy
when different species live in similar ways and/or a similar environment, and so face the same environmental factors. convergent evolution
A localised population Deme
When one extreme is selected for. Directional selection
When both extremes are selected for against the middle range. This ultimately produces two new species. Disruptive selection
When one species branches to form two or more species Divergent evolution
Organisms don't interbreed because of niche differences Ecological isolation
Evidence for evolution; geological layers show species increasingly different to modern species the deeper (older) you go. Fossil evidence
Caused by reproduction between populations Gene Flow
All the genes in a reproducing population. Gene pool
Random changes in allele frequencies because of small population size Genetic Drift
Organisms can't reproduce due to physical separation  Geographical isolation
Pattern of evolution; slow changes between populations occur as a result of slightly different selection pressures Gradualism
Structures with common ancestry, now used for differing functions. Homologous structure
Speciation resulting from polyploidy Instant speciation
An unrepaired change in DNA - the origin of all variation Mutation
The best adapted individuals have a greater chance of reproductive success Natural selection
When cells have more than 2n chromosomes. results from mutation (non-disjunction), can result in instant speciation. Polyploidy
Factors that prevent a hybrid persisting as a new species - includes hybrid inviability, hybrid infertility and hybrid breakdown. Post-Zygotic Isolation
Factors that prevent a hybrid from being conceived - includes behaviour, structure, temporal, gamete incompatibility, geographical Pre-Zygotic Isolation
Pattern of evolution; consists of long periods of stability, followed by rapid changes as a result of critical selection pressures. Punctuated equilibrium
Populations unable to interbreed Reproductive isolation
The environmental factors that favour certain phenotypes Selection pressure
Formation of a new species Speciation
A group of individuals that will interbreed in nature to produce fertile offspring Species
Selection for the middle range against the extremes Stabilising selection
Organisms are unable to reproduce due to differences in their genital organs Structural isolation
Groups that are very different from each other, but can still interbreed. Subspecies
Organisms don't reproduce due to differences in timing (active/breeding at the different times) Temporal isolation
Structures which have the same job but have different bone make-up. Do not share a common ancestor. Analogous Structures
A gradual variation in the characteristics of a species or population over a geographical range Cline
The study of how embryos develop, looking at which genes are turned on and when Embryology
Only found naturally in a certain country or area Endemic
Gradual process by which the present diversity of plants and animals arose from earliest and most primitive organisms Evolution
Random fluctuation in the frequency of alleles due to chance events Genetic drift
Environmental factors that selects certain phenotypes Selective pressure
Having more than two haploid sets of chromosomes that are derived from the same ancestral species Autopolyploid
Having more than two haploid sets of chromosomes that are derived from the same ancestral species Allopolyploid
An individual formed by mating between genetically different populations or species Hybrid
Comparison of the DNA sequences  allows organisms to be grouped and show relativeness DNA comparison
Created by: hannahsandbrook
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