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Cell Growth

Cell Growth and Division

cell cycle the regular pattern of growth, DNA duplication, and cell division that occurs in eukaryotic cells
mitosis the division of the cell nucleus and its contents
cytokinesis the process that divides the cell cytoplasm
chromosome one long continuous thread of DNA that consists of numerous genes along with regulatory information
histone a group of proteins that each chromosome is associated with
chromatin the loose combination of DNA and proteins
chromatid half of the duplicated chromosome
centromere the substance that holds sister chromatids together
telomere the structure at the end of DNA molecules
prophase the phase in which chromatin condense into tightly coiled chromosomes
metaphase the phase in which spindle fibers attach to a protein structure on the centromere of each chromosome and align the chromosomes along the cell equator
anaphase the phase in which sister chromatids separate from each other
telophase the phase in which a complete set of identical chromosomes is positioned at each pole of the cell
growth factor a broad group of proteins that stimulate cell division
apoptosis programed cell death
cancer the common name for a class of diseases characterized by uncontrolled cell division
benign type of tumor where the cancer cell typically remain clustered together
malignant a type of tumor in which some of the cancer cells can break away
metastasize the breaking away of cancer cells
carcinogen substances that are known to produce or promote the development of cancer
asexual reproduction the creation of offspring from a single parent and does not involve the joining of gametes
binary fission the asexual reproductions of a single-celled organism by division into two roughly equal parts
tissue groups of cells that work together to perform a single function
organ groups of tissues that work together to perform a specific function or related functions
organ system organs that carry out similar function are grouped into this
cell differentiation the process by which unspecialized cells develop into their mature forms and functions
stem cell a unique type of body cell that has the ability to (1) divide and renew itself for long periods of time, (2) remain undifferentiated in form, and (3) develop into a variety of specialized cell types