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Bio Exam II

Mendelian Genetics

genes unit of hereditary info
alleles alternative version of genes
character observable hereditary info
trait a variant of a character
genotype genetic makeup; genes/ present alleles
phenotype observable trait; character and trait
Gregor Mendel - 1st to determine basic rules of inheritance in eukaryotes - foundation of genetics - used 32 strains of garden peas to experiment - used quantitative methods in experiment; experimental approach, recorded and documented data
True breeding lines - In self fertilization: offspring is always an exact copy of parent - Mendel performed 2 years of true breeding before starting his experiments - Non self- fertilization example: cross b/w 1 homozygous dominant and 1 homozygous recessive; YYxyy
Blending inheritance PROVED WRONG - hypothesis: gametes have sampling of both parents ex. red flower x white flower = pink flower
experimental crosses mate 2 organisms to see offspring phenotype P1 gen= parents F1 gen= first filial gen F2= second filial gen
Prediction behind experimental crosses - if blending is accurate, F1 phenotype is an immediate blend of P phenotypes
Mendel's experiments - start w/ true breeding lines in P gen b/w opposite phenotypes - Then mate F1 with e/o
Observations from Mendel's experiments - F1: always resemble 1 parent, other is absent - F2: Progeny can be both P phenotypes in 3:1 ratio
Mendel's Model Alternative hypothesis: Particular inheritance - character determined by "heritable factors" called genes - each character is controlled by factors-
Components to Mendel's Model 1&2&3 1) Alleles: alternative form of genes 2) 2 factors for each character diploid individs. get 2 copies of each gene (mom & dad) may be identical (true breeding) or diff ound on homologous chromosomes (same loci) 3) Dominance dom. allele expressed
Components to Mendel's Model 4 4) 2 Principals of Heredity Mendel's Law of Segregation - 2 alleles for a character segregate during gamete formation Law of Independent Assortment- genes on diff chromosomes assort independently b/c of random orientation of tetrads in metaphase 1
Importance of independent assortment - genetic recombination: new outcome of alleles in offspring - 2nd mechanism for increasing genetic variation in sexual reproduction
Genetic Crosses predicts offspring of genotype in genetic crosses everything regards alleles
Monohybrid Crosses -Outcome is Heterozygous for one character; heterozygotes crossed - Genotype ratio 1:2:1 Pheotype ratio: 3:1
True Breeding - 1 homozygous dom. x 1 homozygous recessive - YY x yy - Frequency of heterozygotes in F1 gen: 100%
Using Probability to determine Outcomes -law of segregation & independent assortment reflect the basic rules of probability - same as flipping a coin or rolling a dice
Multiplication rule - allows for prediction of combined probabilities of independent events ex. flip 2 coins once AND what is the chance of all tails (1/2 x 1/2= 1/4)
Addition Rule - probability of mutually exclusive events ex. flip one coin once, what is the change of getting head OR tail (1/2 + 1/2= 1)
Created by: tennadeleta.
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