Busy. Please wait.
or

show password
Forgot Password?

Don't have an account?  Sign up 
or

Username is available taken
show password

why


Make sure to remember your password. If you forget it there is no way for StudyStack to send you a reset link. You would need to create a new account.
We do not share your email address with others. It is only used to allow you to reset your password. For details read our Privacy Policy and Terms of Service.


Already a StudyStack user? Log In

Reset Password
Enter the associated with your account, and we'll email you a link to reset your password.
Don't know
Know
remaining cards
Save
0:01
To flip the current card, click it or press the Spacebar key.  To move the current card to one of the three colored boxes, click on the box.  You may also press the UP ARROW key to move the card to the "Know" box, the DOWN ARROW key to move the card to the "Don't know" box, or the RIGHT ARROW key to move the card to the Remaining box.  You may also click on the card displayed in any of the three boxes to bring that card back to the center.

Pass complete!

"Know" box contains:
Time elapsed:
Retries:
restart all cards
Embed Code - If you would like this activity on your web page, copy the script below and paste it into your web page.

  Normal Size     Small Size show me how

Bio Exam II

Mendelian Genetics

TermDefinition
genes unit of hereditary info
alleles alternative version of genes
character observable hereditary info
trait a variant of a character
genotype genetic makeup; genes/ present alleles
phenotype observable trait; character and trait
Gregor Mendel - 1st to determine basic rules of inheritance in eukaryotes - foundation of genetics - used 32 strains of garden peas to experiment - used quantitative methods in experiment; experimental approach, recorded and documented data
True breeding lines - In self fertilization: offspring is always an exact copy of parent - Mendel performed 2 years of true breeding before starting his experiments - Non self- fertilization example: cross b/w 1 homozygous dominant and 1 homozygous recessive; YYxyy
Blending inheritance PROVED WRONG - hypothesis: gametes have sampling of both parents ex. red flower x white flower = pink flower
experimental crosses mate 2 organisms to see offspring phenotype P1 gen= parents F1 gen= first filial gen F2= second filial gen
Prediction behind experimental crosses - if blending is accurate, F1 phenotype is an immediate blend of P phenotypes
Mendel's experiments - start w/ true breeding lines in P gen b/w opposite phenotypes - Then mate F1 with e/o
Observations from Mendel's experiments - F1: always resemble 1 parent, other is absent - F2: Progeny can be both P phenotypes in 3:1 ratio
Mendel's Model Alternative hypothesis: Particular inheritance - character determined by "heritable factors" called genes - each character is controlled by factors-
Components to Mendel's Model 1&2&3 1) Alleles: alternative form of genes 2) 2 factors for each character diploid individs. get 2 copies of each gene (mom & dad) may be identical (true breeding) or diff ound on homologous chromosomes (same loci) 3) Dominance dom. allele expressed
Components to Mendel's Model 4 4) 2 Principals of Heredity Mendel's Law of Segregation - 2 alleles for a character segregate during gamete formation Law of Independent Assortment- genes on diff chromosomes assort independently b/c of random orientation of tetrads in metaphase 1
Importance of independent assortment - genetic recombination: new outcome of alleles in offspring - 2nd mechanism for increasing genetic variation in sexual reproduction
Genetic Crosses predicts offspring of genotype in genetic crosses everything regards alleles
Monohybrid Crosses -Outcome is Heterozygous for one character; heterozygotes crossed - Genotype ratio 1:2:1 Pheotype ratio: 3:1
True Breeding - 1 homozygous dom. x 1 homozygous recessive - YY x yy - Frequency of heterozygotes in F1 gen: 100%
Using Probability to determine Outcomes -law of segregation & independent assortment reflect the basic rules of probability - same as flipping a coin or rolling a dice
Multiplication rule - allows for prediction of combined probabilities of independent events ex. flip 2 coins once AND what is the chance of all tails (1/2 x 1/2= 1/4)
Addition Rule - probability of mutually exclusive events ex. flip one coin once, what is the change of getting head OR tail (1/2 + 1/2= 1)
Created by: tennadeleta.