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Unit 3 Topic 1

Describing Biodiversity

Define Species The lowest taxon in Linnaean classification; a group of living organisms consisting of similar individuals capable of exchanging genes or interbreeding.
Define ecosystem A self-sustaining unit consisting of the interactions between the species in a community and the environment.
What are the 3 types/levels of biodiversity? Genetic diversity. Species diversity. Ecosystem diversity.
What is genetic diversity? the range of different genes within a species.
What is species diversity? the range of different species in an ecosystem.
What is ecosystem diversity? the range of different ecosystems in a particular location.
Why is species diversity important within an ecosystem? Each species has a role to play in an ecosystem, with a balance of growth and predation, nutrition and mortality. Ecosystems with many different species are able to adapt to and absorb changes better than ecosystems with fewer species.
What is biodiversity? Biodiversity is the full range of living things in an area or region.
What are the 5 measures of biodiversity? 1. Species richness 2. Species abundance 3. Percentage frequency 4. Percentage cover 5. Simpson's Diversity Index
What is species richness? What is an advantage and disadvantage for using this measure? The number of species present in an ecosystem. Advantage: easy to count, indicates diversity. Disadvantage: does not account for the number of organisms present for each species
What is the relative species abundance? What are any advantages and disadvantages for this measure? Relative Species abundance: how many of each species is present in an ecosystem. Advantage: differentiate between ecosystems with 1 dominant species and more evenly distributed ecosystems. Disadvantage: more difficult to count.
What is percentage cover? What are any advantages and disadvantages for this measure? Percentage cover: estimate of the percentage of a quadrat that a species occupies. Advantage: good for grasses and other hard-to-count plants. Disadvantages: estimate only, can't calculate SDI
What is percentage frequency? What are any advantages and disadvantages for this measure? Percentage frequency: proportion of quadrats that contain a particular species. Advantages: more accurate assessment of abundance. Disadvantages: species live in communities, can't calculate SDI
What is Simpson's diversity index? Simpson's Diversity Index is a number between 1 (infinite diversity) and 0 (no diversity). It is the combined ratio of individuals in each species to the total individuals in an ecosystem (quantitative measure)
What are the three levels of spatial differentiation in ecosystems? Micro-level ecosystem, Meso-level Ecosystem and Macro-level ecosystems.
How does temporal differentiation (in the same place) affect the species diversity? 1. More species are active during the day than at night. 2. more species of insect are active in summer than in winter. 3. extended periods of drought or extreme changes in climate can cause species to move away for years at a time.
How does spatial differentiation (at the same time) affect the species diversity? 1. more species are active in a forest than in a city, 2. More species active in North Queensland in winter than in Victoria. 3. More species are active in Australia than in Antarctica.
What are some species interactions that can be compared across a spatial scale? Predation, competition, ratio of producers to consumers.
What abiotic factors can be compared across a spatial scale? temperature, light intensity, rainfall, soil type.
What abiotic factors can be compared across a temporal scale? temperature and humidity, climate change or drought.
What is an environmental limiting factor? an aspect of the environment that restricts an organism's ability to live there
What is an example of an environmental limiting factor? A koala's population is limited by the number of eucalypt trees in an area and the distance between mating individuals.
List some factors that can be limiting. Rainfall - restrict no. of plants Soil type Temperature - polar bears can't survive in Queensland lack of appropriate food source
What are some limitations of classification? Simplifying analysis - which features do you group together? different interpretations emphasise major similarities and ignore minor differences
What are the 8 taxa in Linnaean classification? Domain, Kingdom, Phylus, Class, Order, Family, Genus, Species
What are the three domains? Eukarya, Archaea and Bacteria
What are the 6 kingdoms? Animalia, Plantae, Protista, Fungi, Archaea and Bacteria
What is an example of a phylum? Chordata
What is an example of a class? mammalia
what is an example of an order? carnivora
What is an example of a family? Felidae
What is an example of a genus? Felis
What is an example of a species? catus (Felis catus)
What are the three categories by which organisms are classified? Physical features, Methods of reproduction and molecular sequences
What is the classification system for methods of reproduction? asexual, sexual, r and K selection
Describe r/K selection r/K selection: classification according to behaviour towards young.
What are the characteristics of r and K selected organisms? r selected organisms: large numbers of offspring who survive with little-to-no parental involvement. K selected organisms: small numbers of offspring who rely on their parents for an extended period
What is an example of where an organism has been reclassified due to new insights from molecular sequences? The Red Panda was previously considered a member of the family Ursidae (bears) or the family Procyonidae (raccoon) but it is now known, through DNA evidence, that it is sufficient different to be considered its own family - Ailuridae
What is a clade? A clade is a group comprised of all of the descendants of a particular ancestor organism
What are the three assumptions that cladistics relies on? 1. all life evolved from a single ancestor, therefore all organisms will share a common ancestor at some point. 2. dichotomous divergence (cladogenesis) 3. From point of divergence, organisms become increasingly different as they evolve
What is comparative genomics? the study of DNA similarities across species
What is molecular homology? the identification of shared biomolecular elements - generally genes - used to test the relationships between organisms, which can demonstrate common ancestry
How can we date divergence? (in terms of DNA) using the mutation rate -- molecular clock
What is the biological species concept? the definition of a species based on the capacity of individuals to interbreed.
What are some limitations of the biological species concept? Cannot be applied to fossils. There are sometimes zones of overlap e.g. grolar bears -- polar bears and grizzly bears are capable of interbreeding yet there are other physiological and behavioural differences that don't fit the model
What is an example of an interspecific hybrid that does not produce fertile offspring? Mules
What is the morphological species concept? the definition of a species based on physical characteristics
What is the phylogenetic species concept? the definition of a species based on the smallest group of individuals having a common ancestor, often determined through genetic analysis
What is symbiosis? Symbiosis is a relationship between individuals of two or more species in which at least one organism benefits from the interaction.
What types of species interactions (4) can largely impact their ecosystems? Competition, predation, symbiosis and disease.
Explain competition as a species interaction. Competition within and between species is a common feature of all communities. Eg. competing for food sources etc. one species will eventually win (out-compete) the other
Explain symbiosis as a species interaction. Three main types: parasitism, commensalism, mutualism. Symbiosis is a relationship between two organisms where at least one species benefits.
Explain predation as a species interaction. Predator-prey relationships. Predation includes animals preying on animals, animals preying on plants.
Explain disease as a species interaction. interactions between a disease-causing organisms (pathogens) and its host. Disease can devastate populations.
How does classifying ecosystems help in ecosystem management? By classifying ecosystems, they can be grouped for studies and researchers can collaborate on its protection. Through the classification, management policies and procedures can be tailored more specifically to the needs of the habitat.
What is stratified sampling? Stratified sampling is a statistical sampling technique that divides an area into strata for separate sampling.
What is the purpose of stratified sampling? Stratified sampling is used to get a more accurate portrayal of the area. It can be used to accurately estimate population size, density and distribution over an area, as well as to define environmental gradients and habitat zones.
What are the sampling techniques that can be used in stratified sampling? In stratified sampling, we can use quadrats, transects, or capture-mark-recapture
Explain the use of quadrats as a sampling technique. Advantages/disadvantages? A quadrat is a square measured at ground level. It is useful for estimating abundance and distribution, particularly for organisms that are fixed or do not move very much.
Explain the use of transects as a sampling technique. A transect is a line drawn through a community that serves as a boundary for sampling. Used to determine the distribution of species and is useful for stationery species (plants/fungi).
Explain capture-mark-recapture as a sampling technique. Used for mobile species. involves capturing individuals, marking them, and recapturing and using the proportion of marked to unmarked to estimate population size.
How can error be minimised in stratified sampling? Sufficient number of quadrats - ensure sample is representative. Use a random number generator - eliminate bias Equipment used in abiotic sampling should be calibrated before use and associated precision noted in data.
Created by: Caitlyn_01



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