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Respitory System

Lab Study STACK

Two pairs of vocal folds are found in the larynx. Which pair are the true vocal cords? The inferior folds
Name the cartiledge that forms the adams apple thyroid cartiledge
Name the cartiledge that creates a "lid" for the larynx epiglottis
Name the cartiledge that is shaped like signet ring cricoid
Name the cartiledge that is a vocal cord attachment arytenoid
Why is the trachea reinforced w/cartilaginous rings? Prevents its collapse during pressure changes that occur during breathing
Why are the rings of the trachea incomplete posteriorly? To allow a food bolus traveling down the esophagus to bulge anteriorly.
What is the function of the pleural membranes? Produce a serous fluid that reduces frictin during breathng movements and helps to hold the lungs tightly to the thorax wall which keeps the lungs inflated.
Name two functions of the nasal cavity mucosa warms and moistens incoming air
Which bronchi is longer? Left
Which bronchi is larger in diameter? Right
Which bronchi is more horizontal? Left
Which bronchi more commonly traps a foreign object that has entered the respitory passageways? Right
How many lobes do the lungs have? The left lung has two and the right lung has three.
Trace a molecule of Oxygen from the external nares to the pulmonary capillaries of the lungs External Nares -> nasal cavity -> pharynx -> larynx -> trachea -> primary bronchus -> tertiary/secondary bronchi (etc) -> bronchiole -> respiratory bronchiole -> alveolar duct -> alveolar sac -> alveolar/capillary walls-> pulmonary blood
Connects the larynx to the primary bronchi trachea
Site of the tonsils pharynx
food passageway posterior to the trachea esophagus
covers the glottis during swallowing of food epiglottis
contains the vocal cords larynx
nerve that activates the diaphragn during inspiration phrenic nerve
pleural layer lining the walls of the thorax parietal pleura
site from which oxygen enters the pulmonary blood alveolus
connects the middle ear to the nasopharynx opening of pharyngotympanic tube
opening between the vocal folds glottis
increases air turbulence in the nasal cavity concha
separates the oral cavity from the nasal cavity palate
What portions of the respiratory system are referred to as anatomical dead space? Why? All but the respiratory zone structures (respitory bronchioles, alveolar ducts and sacs and alveoli) Because no gas exchange occurs except in the respiratory zone, particualry in teh alveoli
Define external respiration The exchange of gases across the respiratory membrane in the lungs
Define internal respiration The exchange of respiratory gases between the blood of the systemic capillaries and the tissue cells of the body.
Define cellular respiration Oxygen-using cellular processes (that produce energy) with tissue cells.
Does the lung inflate part by part or as a whole, like a balloon? Part by part
What happens when pressure is lost in the lung? It deflates
What type of tissues allow the lung to deflate? Elastic connective tissue
What structural characteristics of the alveoli make them an ideal site for the diffusion of gases? Thin walls, extremely large surface area
Why does oxygen move from the alveoli into the pulmonary capillary blood? Because the partial pressure of oxygen is greater in the alveoli; therefore, it moves according to the laws of diffusion into the pulmonary blood.
Under what internal conditiions does air tend to flow into the lungs? Thoracis volume is up and pressure is down.
Under what internal conditions does air tend to flow out of the lungs? Explain. Thoracic volume is down and pressure is up. Gases move in the direction that tends to equalize pressure inside and outside the "container"
Activation of the diaphragn and the external intercostal muscles begins the inspiratory process. What effect does contraction of these muscles have on thoracic volume, and how is this accomplished? Thoracic volume is up. The diaphragn moves inferiory, increasing the superior-inferior dimensin; the ribs swing up and out, increasing the lateral and anterior/posterior dimensions.
What would happen if an opening were made into the chest cavity, like a knife wound, but the lungs were not penetrated? The lung would collapse because the puncture of the pleural space would destroy the partial vacuum.
Which of teh respiratory sounds is heard during both inspiration and expiration? Bronchial
Which respiratory sound is heard primarily during insiration? Vesicular
Where is the vesicular respiratory sound most clearly heard? Over most of the lung area.
Which respiratory ailments can respiratory volume tests be used to detect? Chronic bronchitis and emplysema (often associated) Chronic bronchitis lowers the volume of air that can be inhaled due to excessive mucus production; emphysema lowers the amount of air that can be exhaled (check-valve effect)
Where are the neural control centers of respiratory rhythm? medulla oblongata and pons
Where are the sensory receptors sensitive to changes in blood pressure located? Aortic arch and carotid sinus
Where are sensory receptors sensitive to changes in oxygen levels in the blood located? Aortic bodies in the aortic arch and carotid bodies at the bifurcation of the common carotid artery.
What is the primary factor that initiates breathng in a newborn infant? Raised levels of CO2 in the blood.
Blood CO2 level and blood pH are related. When blood CO2 leavels increase, does the pH increase or decrease? Explain why. Decrease. CO2 combines with H20 to produce carbonic acid (H2CO3) which dissociates and liberates a hydrogen ion (H+)
Which, if any measurable respiratory volumes would likely be exaggerated in a person who is cardiovascularly fit? VC, IRV, ERV, FEV would all be increased.
Which, if any, of the measurable respiratory volumes would likely be exaggerated ina person who has smoked a lot for over 20 yrs? VC, IRV, ERV, FEV would all be REDUCED.
What buffer system operates in blood plasma? Carbonic acid-bicarbonate system.
What role does exhalation of carbon dioxide play in maintaining relatively constant blood pH? CO2 leaves the blood during exhalation. This prevents and accumulation of carbonic acid.
Created by: 1624980995
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