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apologia biology

Exploring Creation with Biology 2nd edition module 6

TermDefinition
Absorption The transport of dissolved substances into cells
Digestion The breakdown of absorbed substances
Respiration The breakdown of food molecules with a release of energy
Excretion The removal of soluble waste materials
Egestion The removal of non soluble waste materials
Secretion The release of biosynthesized substances
Homeostasis Maintaining the status quo
Reproduction Producing more cells
Cytology The study of cells
Cell Wall A rigid structure on the outside of certain cells, usually plant and bacteria cells
Middle Lamella The thin film between the cell walls of adjacent plant cells
Plasma Membrane The semipermeable membrane between the cell contents and either the cell wall or the cell's surroundings
Cytoplasm A jellylike fluid inside the cell in which the organelles are suspended
Ions Substances in which at least one atom has an imbalance of protons and electrons
Cytoplasmic streaming The motion of cytoplasm in a cell that results in a coordinated movement of the cell's contents
Mitochondria The organelles in which nutrients are converted to energy
Lysosome The organelle in animal cells responsible for hydrolysis reactions that break down proteins, polysaccharides, disaccharides , and some lipids
Ribosomes Non-membrane-bounded organelles responsible fro protein synthesis
Rough ER ER that is dotted with ribosomes
Smooth ER ER that has no ribosomes
Endoplasmic reticulum An organelle composed of an extensive network of folded membranes that performs several tasks within a cell
Leucoplasts Organelles that store starches or oils
Chromoplasts Organelles that contain pigments used in photosynthesis
Waste Vacuoles Vacuoles that contain the waste products of digestion
Phagocytosis The process by which a cell engulfs foreign substances or other cells
Phagocytic Vacuole A vacuole that holds the matter which a cell engulfs
Pinocytic Vesicle Vesicle formed at the plasma membrane to allow the absorption of large molecules
Secretion Vesicle Vesicle that holds secretion products so that they can be transported to the plasma membrane and released
Gogli bodies The organelles where proteins and lipids are stored and then modified to suit the needs of the cell
Microtubules Spiral strands of protein molecules that form a tube like structure
Nuclear membrane a highly-porous membrane that separates the nucleus from the cytoplasm
Chromatin Clusters of DNA, RNA, and proteins in the nucleus of the cell
Cytoskeleton A network of fibers that holds the cell together, helps the cell to keep its shape, and aids in movement
Microfilaments Fine, threadlike proteins found in the cell's cytoskeleton
Intermediate filaments Threadlike proteins in the cell's cytoskeleton that are roughly twice as thick as microfilaments
Phospholipid A lipid in which one of the fatter acid molecules has been replaced by a molecule that contains a phosphate group
Passive transport Movement of molecules through the plasma membrane according to the dictates of osmosis or diffusion
Active transport Movement of molecules through the plasma membrane (typically opposite the dictates of osmosis or diffusion) aided by a process that requires energy
Isotonic solution A solution in which the concentration of solutes is essentially equal to that of the cell which resides in the solution
hypertonic solution A solution in which the concentration of solutes is greater than that of the cell that resides in the solution
Plasmolysis Collapse of a walled cell's cytoplasm due to a lack of water
Cytolysis The rupturing of a cell due to excess internal pressure
Hypotonic solution a solution in which the concentration of solutes is less than that of the cell that resides in the solution
Activation energy Energy necessary to get a chemical reaction going
Central vacuole A large vacuole that rests at the center of most plant cells and is filled with a solution that contains a high concentration of solutes
Created by: Bossboy625