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Biology Chapter 4

Study Activities on Immunity MCB2010

QuestionAnswer
_____ promote movement of phagocytes through the capillary walls and also enhance histamine and kinins. Prostaglandins
Name all 5 types of mechanical immune system factors. Skin, mucous membranes, tears, saliva and cilia
C5 through C9 reactions of the complement system form the _____. MAC
The _____ membranes cover the GI, respiratory and genitourinary tracts. Mucous
Name the 2 types of granulocytes which are phagocytic. Neutrophils, Macrophages
The enzyme contained in perspiration is _____. Lysozyme
When phagocytes move between the endothelial tissues to enter the damaged tissues it is called ______. emigration
_____ is the attachment of the phagocyte's plasma membrane to the surface of the foreign particle or bacterium. Adherence
These granulocytes are known as polymorphonuclear leukocytes. Neutrophils
_____ is the chemical attraction of phagocytes to the area they are needed. Chemotaxis
_____ is released by phagocytes which then cause the hypothalamus to produce prostaglandins, to cause fever in the host. IL-1
The MAC formed during complement fixation causes _____. Cytolysis
The _____ is the inner portion of the skin composed of thick connective tissue. Dermis
The process whereby the foreign object is coated with plasma proteins to enhance attachment of the phagocyte is known as _____. Opsonization
The ____ is the thin layer of epithelial cells of the skin,. Epidermis
Increased blood vessel _____ during inflammation allows increased fluid flow into damaged tissue. permeability
The proper term for white blood cells is _____. Leukocytes
_____ is the waterproof protein covering the outermost layer of skin. Keratin
What two types of antibodies begin the complement activation by binding to C1? IgG, IgM
_____ is released from damaged tissues and increases both blood vessel permeability and vasodilation. Histamine
These granulocytes produce toxic proteins for use against parasites. Eosinophils
The proper term for platelets is _____. Thrombocytes
Name the 3 main categories of leukocytes. Granulocytes, Monocytes, Lymphocytes
The name of the plasma proteins of the complement system which act as opsonins. C3b
_____ is an increase in blood vessel diameter during the inflammatory response. Vasodilation
Monocytes mature into ______ after they migrate into the damaged area. Machrophages
These granulocytes release histamine which plays a role in the inflammatory and allergic responses. Basophils
_____ are chemotaxic to phagocytes at the injury site. Kinins
_____ are formed when the phagocyte forms pseudopods which surround the foreign particle. Phagosomes
Both ____ and _____ acids are secreted by the skin and keep it at a low pH. Fatty and Lactic
The proper term for red blood cells is _____. Erythrocytes
When a phagosome (phagocytic vesicle) fuses with a lysosome they form a ________. Phagolysosome
______ occurs when phagocytes adhere to the blood vessel lining. Margination
The MAC formed from complement fixation stands for? Membrane Attack Complex
The ______ ______ produces tears which are part of the mechanical factors of the immune system. Lacrimal apparatus
What 2 complement proteins cause inflammation by binding to mast cells and basophils and causing them to release histamine? C3a,C5a
These _____ proteins cause a series of cascade reactions to target foreign cells for lysis. Complement
What is secreted by the sebaceous glands and forms a protective film over the skin? Sebum
_____ are iron-binding proteins in the blood. Transferrins
A healthy stomach should be _____ due to HCl and degradative enzymes contained therein. Sterile
_____ protect uninfected cells against viral invasion after interferons interact with their surface receptors. AVP (anti-viral proteins)
Interferons are _____ cell specific, not specific for the virus. Host
_____ increase blood vessel permeability and help to attach phagocytes to microbes. Leukotrienes
Eosinophils, Neutrophils and Basophils are all types of _______. Granulocytes