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Diffusion he movement of molecules from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration. Does not require energy.
Osmosis the diffusion of water across a selectively perimeable membrane.
Solute the substance that is dissolved in a solvent
Solvent substance in which a solute is dissolved
Solution solutes dissolved in solvent
Concentration mass of solute in a given volume of solution
Concentration gradient a difference in concentration in one place compared to another
Equilibrium the solute concentration is uniform or equal everywhere in the solution.
Permiable all molecules can cross the membrane
Semipermiable only certain molecules can cross the membrane, others cannot cross
Selectively permeable only certain molecules can cross the membrane, others cannot Impermeable - nothing can cross the membrane
Passive transport movement across the membrane that does not require energy. Includes diffusion, osmosis, facilitated diffusion, and protein channels
Active transport movement across the membrane that requires energy. Includes pumps and vesicles
Isotonic the solute concentration inside the cell is the same as the solute concentration outside the cell
Hypertonic Solute concentration outside cell is greater than inside cell. Cell will shrink.
Hypotonic solute concentration outside cell is less than inside the cell. Cell will swell.
Vesicles are small membrane sacs that pinch off of cell membranes
Endocytosis vesicles used to bring materials into the cell. Uses ATP