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# Dental Community

### Biostatistics, communication, ethical and legal principles

Science of making statements about an entire population from a limited sample of that population. Statistics
Numeric characteristic of the sample; set value but unknown, often estimated Parameter
Study of a population includes: Parameter and Statistic
Gives you the estimate for the parameter; numeric characteristic of the sample; known value Statistic
Every Item/person has an equal and independent chance of being selected; be careful because it can still not be representative of the population Simple Random Sample
Carried out in subgroups (strata) to ensure that selections will be made from each level of the subgroup; every age, sex, race, socioeconomic status Stratified Random Sample
Divides the population into small groups then assesses every subject in the sampled clusters; good for low cost and not enouth time Cluster Sampling
Selecting items/people iin a block of predetermined size; biased, not random Quota Sample
Selected on the basis of convenience to the researcher; can't generalize to entire population Convenience Sample
Name the probability samples Simple Random and Stratified Random Samples
Name the Nonprobability samples Cluster, Quota, and Convenience Samples
Drawn when you are able to identify and have access to all members of the population of interest. Probability Sample
Use when access to entire population is not available; pros outweigh the risks of having a biased sample Nonprobability Sample
What helps select the appropriate statistical test? Variables
Event studied and expected to change whenever the independent variable is altered. Dependent Variables
May determine the outcome Independent Variables
Discrete categories do not have a quantitative relationship with each other (not rankable), lowest level of measurement - the naming level Nominal
Ordered categories; difference between the categories is not specified Ordinal
Scale is equally spaced; difference between two points is meaningful; no set zero Interval
Has meaning on a scale and a set zero Ratio
Name the categorical variables Nominal and Ordinal
Name the continuous variables: measured quantities Interval and Ratio
Two steps in data analysis? Calculate descriptive statistics and calculate inferential statistics
What are the techniques available for displaying data? Frequency table, Histogram, and Bar charts
Too much information may be lost To few intervals
May give too much detail, losing the ability to obtain an overall feel for the distribution Too many Intervals
Divide actual frequency by total number of observations and multiply by 100(% of subjects should = 100%) Relative frequency distribution
Used for continuous variables (interval and ratio) Histogram
No spaces between bars, height and width represents the frequency distribution of the data Histogram
Used for each interval category? Bar Charts
Height is determined by the relative frequency of occurrence? Bar charts
Characteristics of data found within the sample of individuals in whom the study was conducted Descriptive statistics
Types of descriptive statistics? Measures of central tendency and measure of spread
A set of values, attitudes, and behaviors that place the client's self interest before the self-interest of the professional Professionalism
Appropriate intervals are chosen & a number is computed for measurements falling within each interval; intervals = width; width of intervals determines the # of intervals Frequency table
Attempt to identify the middle of a distribution to provide one sample statistic that describes the character of an entire data set measure of central tendency
This says nothing about the variability among the data Central tendency
What are the 3 measures of central tendency? mode, median, and mean
The only measure of central tendency that makes sense for nominal categorical variables Mode
The most frequently occurring value in a set of observations Mode
The middle item of a data set, which will divide a data set arranged in order in half Median
EX: 0,1,2,3,3,4: 2+3=5 5/2=2.5 Median
Useful for describing the central tendency of ordinal categorical variables, as well as continous variables Median
Sum of observations divided by the munber of observations Mean
Makes sense with continous variables but may be used for ordinal variables Mean
The value that divides the area under the curve in half Median
The point at which the shape would balance if a pivot was placed under the curve Mean
If median is used then data is described by? percentiles and quartiles
Measures of spread depend on? measure of central tendency
Value in which "x" percent of numbers fall below it and the remainder fall above it Percentile
Divide data into four; lower is 25th and upper is the 75th Quartile
What is the square root of the variance? Standard deviation
Plays a central role in many statistics; used to calculate probabilities Standard normal distribution
If observations are close together the standard deviation will be? Small
If observation have the same value, the standard deviation will be? Zero
If observation are more spread out, the standard deviation may be influenced by? Outliers
How do you calculate variance? Get mean; substract mean from observation(aka-deviation); square deviation; add all and divide by observations; total is the variance
How to calculate standard deviation? Square root of variance
_____% of data fall within two standard deviations from the mean? 95%
_____% of data fall within one standard deviation from the mean? 68%
_____% of data fall between one and two standard deviations from the mean? 27%
_____% of all data fall within three standard deviations from the mean? 99.7%
What is the prupose of many studies? To find the relationship between two variables
If relationships between two variables are both catagorical: Use a frequency table
If relationships between two variables are both continious: Scatter diagram
Can determine the presence, strength, and direction of any straight-line pattern? correlation coefficient
2 X 2 table cross tabulated data
Formal methods to draw conclusions from data taking into account chance variation Statistical inference
Used when estimating a population parameter Confidence intervals
Statement of no relationship between an exposure and outcome Null hypothesis
Statement of effect Alternative hypothesis
Choosing the appropriate statistical test Select one that will help weigh the evidence against the null hypothesis
X2 (chi-square) test Difference between the observed and expected; square the difference; divede by expected value
Two sample groups drawn independently from a population and when only one or two independent variable are tested One-sample t-test
Two samples groups that are related and when only one independent variable is tested Two-sample t-test
Probability of a result being as far or further from what would be expected if the null were true P-value
If you reject the null when the null hypothesis is true Type I error
Fail to reject the null when the null is true Type II error
Provides framework for the dental hygienist's actions and decision making? Code of ethics
What is a critical professional responsibility? To remain current in scientific and clinical knowledge so you can make evidence-based decisions.
Concerns the standard of behavior and the concept of right and wrong Ethics
Is the discipline related to the ethical implications of biologic research methods and results? Bioethics
3 major ethical theories? Utilitarian ethics, decontological ethics, and virtue ethics
Meaning duty, suggest that an action is right when it satifies an obligation or duty? Decontological ethics
The rightness of an act is measured by the outcome? Utilitarian ethics
Based on the concept of the moral, virtuous, health care provider striving for excellence Virtue ethics
Providing benefits, preventing harm or evil, and promoting good beneficence
Respect for individuals Autonomy
Tellin the truth, honesty, and integrity Veracity
Fairness and equality Justice
Avoid harming the patient Nonmaleficence
Requirement to keep implied or explicit promises. Faithfulness. Fidelity
Obligates the provider to keep all info about a patient private and to not share it with 3rd parties. Confidentiality
Working in a manner that benefits all people Common good
Having a defined set of values and principles that allow a provider to demonstrate behaviors and attitudes that enable them to work effectively cross-culturally. Cultural competence
Awareness that cultural differences and similarities exist, without assigning values Cultural sensitivity
Familiarization with the selected cultural characteristics, history, values, belief systems, and behaviors of members of another ethnic group Cultural knowledge
When one duty or obligation is in conflict with another Ethical dilemma
Two areas of civil law? tort law and contract law
Usually the first section written, begins with a thorough search of the available literature on the topic literature review
Describes the details of how the study was performed or how the program was administrated methodology
Describes the analyses of the data collected or outcome of the evaluation prodecures, including the statistical test performed results
Provides the reader with the author's thoughts on what the results mean and the significance of the results ot the profession. discussion
A fluid portion of the paper references
Usually wirtten last because it is a concise summary of the entire paper. abstract and title
Developed to protect the public Laws
A rule of conduct or action prescribed or formally recognized as binding or enforced by a controlled authority Law
Described as the minimum standard required to keep a society functioning Law
Include criminal, administrative, constitutional, and international law Public law
Include tort, contract, property, inheritance, family and corporate law Private or cival laws
Focuses on the relationships between individuals or between individuals and the government Civil law
A violation of an agreement or promise between two persons to do or not to do something Contract law
Means that one side of the case must demonstrate a greater weight of evidence than the other side Preponderance of evidence
A legal term meaning something of value is bargained Consideration
An agreement that is explicitly stated, either orally or in writing Expressed contract
An agreement that is shown by inference through signs, inaction, or silence Implied contract
Is a civil violation in which an individual harms another's person(body), privacy, or property because of negligent or intentional actions Tort law
Damages over and above the award to compensate for harm Punitive damages
Deliberate and purposeful act that has a substantial certainty of untoward consequences from the act intentional tort
When a dental provider, in the course of treatment, exceeds the consent provided by a patient Technical battery
Threat of bodily harm Assault
A false statement or deceptive practice with intent to injure someone Deceit
Wrongful act of injuring someone's reputation by making false statements in writing(libel) or verbally (slander) Defamation of character
Described as dishonest or deceitful practices in depriving or attempting to deprive another of his or her rights Fraud
Injury or interference with the property of another Trespass
An action or conduct based on a legal obligation Duty
Level of care expected of a reasonable and prudent practitioner in the same or similar circumstances Standard of care
Act of providing information and assuring that the patient understands the treatment risks and advantages, options available, and the nature of the disease or problem Informed consent
Protects the provider from subsequent allegations of negligence Informed refusal
Body of law created by administrative agencies in the form of rules, regulations, orders and decisions Administrative law
Who enacts the state's dental practice act Legislative branch of government
Dentist needs to be on the premises Direct supervision
An emerging practice model in which dental hygienist strive to prevent and treat oral disease through the provision of educational, assessment, preventive, clinical, and other therapeutic services Collaborative practice
The length of time during which a legal action must be taken and can be a state law or part of a statute Statute of limitations
Created by: jenbug

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