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Cat 2 Vocab

Cat 2 Vocab - Mechanisms of Genetics

Nucleotide A subunit (monomer) of nucleic acids like DNA and RNA. Composed of a sugar, phosphate, and nitrogenous base.
Phosphate Group Component of DNA or RNA nucleotide
Deoxyribose A monosaccharide (sugar) found in each nucleotide in DNA.
Nitrogen Bases Adenine, Thymine, Cytosine, and Guanine in DNA. Adenine, Uracil, Cytosine, and Guanine in RNA.
Genetic Code The code found in DNA that matches codons in mRNA to amino acids on tRNA.
Genome An organism's complete set of genetic information (DNA).
Transcription The process where a copy of mRNA is made from one gene in DNA; occurs in nucleus
Translation The process of making a protein, where tRNA matches amino acids to codons in the mRNA; occurs in ribosome
Translocation mutation resulting from movement of DNA from one chromosome to a different location on some chromosome
Meiosis cell division creating sex cells with half the amount of DNA
Monohybrid cross punnett square showing results of genetic cross of one trait
Dominant allele with genetic trait always expressed
homozygous alleles with the same genetic information
Non-Mendelian Inheritance genetic inheritance pattern different from dominant hides recessive trait such as codominance, imcomplete dominance
Incomplete Dominance genetic inheritance pattern where phenotype of offspring are a blend between two separate parental phenotypes
Genetic Mutation changes in organism's DNA sequence;
Deletion changes in genetic code with removal of nucleotides
Insertion changes in genetic code with addition of nucleotides
Inversion changes in genetic code with nucleotides in opposite order
Gene A unit of heredity; A portion of DNA that codes for a trait.
Punnett Square graphic organizer showing results of a genetic cross
Dihybrid cross punnett square showing results of genetic cross of two traits
Mendelian Inheritance genetic inheritance pattern when dominant trait always masks or hides phenotype of recessice trait
Recessive Genetic trait which only expresses phenotype when in homozygous state; hides when dominant allel is present
Homozygous alleles with the same genetic information
Heterozygous alleles with different genetic information; one dominant allele and one recessice allele.
Co-dominance genetic inheritance pattern in which two dominant alleles are expressed in phenotype
DNA fingerprinting creating a gel electrophoresis of DNA nucleotides to determine similarities in banding patterns
Genetic Modification changing of the DNA sequence to alter protein synthesis
Chromosomal Analysis karyotype; picture of chromosomes to determine mutations such as nondisjunction
Sex Cells Haploid cells created by meiosis; gametes
Independent Assortment Mendel principle states different pairs of genes are passed to offsrping separately to form new gene combinations
Crossing Over exchange of DNA from separate chromosomes during meiosis
Segregation Mendel principle that gene pairs separate during meiosis so each parent passes down one form of gene to offspring.
Created by: mc13518
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