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Bio Lec 2

Bio Exam 2

__________________ glands (such as tear glands) have vesicles that release their secretion by exocytosis, whereas __________________ glands (such as oil-producing glands) secrete a mixture of disintegrated cells and their products. Merocrine; holocrine
The type of membrane that lines freely movable joints is a _____ membrane. synovial
A thin layer of tissue that covers an organ or lines a cavity is a membrane.
A thick, sticky secretion produced by goblet cells is called mucus.
The secretions of endocrine glands are released directly into the bloodstream.
Unlike an exocrine gland, an endocrine gland has no ducts.
__________________ glands have branched ducts and secretory cells that form sacs at one end of the ducts. Compound acinar
In the intestine, __________________ ensure(s) that most digested nutrients pass through the epithelial cells and not between them. tight junctions
What type of gland possesses ducts? exocrine
Which tissue type forms glands? epithelial
An example of a gap junction is an intercalated disk.
What type of exocrine gland uses exocytosis to secrete its product? merocrine
What type of membranes line cavities that open to the outside and often contain mucous glands? mucous
__________________ glands secrete mucin, which combines with water to form a thick and sticky product, whereas __________________ glands produce a relatively watery fluid. Mucous; serous
What is a small protein channel that allows the passage of ions and small molecules between cells? gap junction
__________________ secrete __________________ into __________________. Endocrine glands; hormones; the blood
The type of membrane that protects internal organs from friction is a ________ membrane. serous
Which of the following is classified as a holocrine gland? sebaceous gland
__________________ exhibits a lot of apparently empty space, and is found in many serous membranes Areolar tissue
What type of membranes do not open to the exterior, do not contain glands, but do secrete fluid? serous
What type of gland accumulates its secretion in the cytoplasm of the cell, the cell then ruptures and becomes part of the secretion? holocrine
The most immediate threat to the life of a patient with severe burns is fluid loss.
A subcutaneous injection delivers medication into the hypodermis.
These cells stand guard against toxins, microbes and other pathogens. dendritic (Langerhans) cells
As skin cells move toward the surface of the body, they produce a protein that reduces water loss. This process is called keratinization.
This is the main fibrous layer of the dermis. reticular layer
Picture The diagram illustrates glands of the skin. What does "B" represent? sebaceous gland
The ___ are a source of sex pheromones. apocrine glands
Picture The diagram illustrates glands of the skin. What does "C" represent? eccrine sweat gland
The portion of a hair that protrudes above the surface of the skin is the hair shaft.
This is the dermal layer closest to the epidermis. papillary layer
What type of burn appears red and swollen along with pain and blisters? second-degree
_____________ burns involve the epidermis, all of the dermis, and often some deeper tissue. Third-degree
This is the site of fat storage in the skin. hypodermis
The ___ is absent from most epidermis. stratum lucidum
If you accidentally cut your arm and see connective tissue and fat, which layer(s) was/were cut? stratum corneum stratum basale dermis hypodermis
Eccrine sweat glands aid in cooling the body.
Picture This image shows strata and cell types of the epidermis. "2" represents a _________, whereas "4" represents a _________. living keratinocyte; melanocyte
Fingerprints and footprints are produced by projections into the epidermis called dermal papillae.
These are all types of cells found in the epidermis except fibroblasts
By covering the whole body surface, the skin acts as a protective barrier and plays a role in immunity.
Sweat is produced by a merocrine or apocrine gland.
When the arrector pili muscles contract "goose bumps" form on the skin.
Keratinocytes . are responsible for the reduction of water loss from the skin.
Vitamin C is essential for normal collagen synthesis. If a child suffered from a vitamin C deficiency, which layer of the skin would be most affected? reticular layer of dermis
Which of the following represents the correct order of the layers of the epidermis from the deepest to the most superficial? stratum basale, stratum spinosum, stratum granulosum, stratum lucidum, and stratum corneum
This epidermal stratum has several layers of cells held together by desmosomes stratum spinosum
Picture This image shows strata and cell types of the epidermis. ________ represents a living keratinocyte belonging to the stratum basale. "5"
Basal cell carcinoma initially affects cells of the stratum __________, whereas melanoma arises from ___________. basale; melanocytes
Which of the following functions is associated with the skin? protection against ultraviolet radiation of the sun
The epidermis contains no blood vessels.
Melanin is produced only by melanocytes
Which vitamin begins its synthesis in the skin exposed to ultraviolet light? vitamin D
Which of the following statements concerning the epidermis is true? The epidermis is nourished by blood vessels located in the dermis.
The oil of your scalp is secreted by __________ glands associated with the hair follicles. sebaceous
Picture The diagram illustrates glands of the skin. What does "A" represent? sweat pore
This layer of the epidermis consists of up to 30 layers of dead cells. stratum corneum
Leather is mostly made of the __________ layer of the dermis, which is very tough due to the high concentration of ____________ fibers. reticular; collagen
____________ is/are formed partly from the secretions of glands in the external ear canal. Cerumen
Each hair grows in an oblique epithelial tube called a(an) hair follicle.
The integumentary system has many functions, one of which is detection of heat and touch.
Cedric slipped and cut his finger. The cut bled, but did not penetrate to the hypodermis. The deepest layer penetrated was the papillary layer of the dermis.
When comparing the dermis with the hypodermis, the dermis is divided into two layers; the hypodermis is not.
Which of the following cell types is responsible for breaking down bone matrix? osteoclast
What type of tissue covers the ends of long bones? articular cartilage
Which type of bone cells have ruffled borders and secrete acids? osteoclasts
What are the maintenance cells in bone tissue? osteocytes
A passageway connecting neighboring osteocytes in an osteon is a canaliculus.
What is the site of longitudinal growth in long bones? epiphyseal plate
60 year old As a result of picking up a heavy object he fractured the radius and ulna of his right arm. X-rays indicated that he had osteoporosis. His blood calcium levels were above normal and cancer cells that produced a hormone-like substance. parathyroid hormone
Which type of bone cells possess extensive ER and ribosomes? osteoblasts osteoblasts
Ossification that involves replacing cartilage with bone is endochondral.
Haversian systems or osteons are the basic units in compact bone tissue.
Which of the following is correctly matched? osteoclasts - responsible for reabsorption
The remodeling of bone tissue is a function of osteoblast and osteoclast activity.
Which type of bone cells combine hydroxyapatite and collagen to form extracellular bone matrix? osteoblasts
Which type of bone is considered dense bone? compact bone
the cell type that is responsible for maintaining bone once it has been formed is the osteocyte.
Appositional growth deposits a new layer of bone on the surface of the bone.
Some marrow of long bones is termed "red" marrow. The function of red marrow is to manufacture blood cells.
When blood calcium levels are low ostoclast activity increases.
Normal bone growth requires adequate amounts of _____, _____, and _____ in the diet. calcium, phosphate, and vitamin D
Intramembranous ossification forms the bones of the roof of the skull.
What is the area where marrow is located? medullary cavity
The primary mineral in bone is calcium.
The covering of the outer surface of bone is the periosteum
Spongy bone tissue contains interconnecting plates called trabeculae.
An X-ray determines that Peter fractured the shaft of his humerus. The break is in the _____________ of the bone. diaphysis
The primary function of osteoblasts is to lay down bone matrix.
Which of the following statements regarding calcium homeostasis is true? When blood calcium levels are too low, osteoclast activity increases.
Which type of bone cells package calcium and phosphate ions? osteoblasts
The compression (weight-bearing) strength of bone matrix is due to the presence of hydroxyapatite crystals.
Chondroblasts produce cartilage matrix.
Osteoclast activity is increased by parathyroid hormone.
What is the site of long bone growth? epiphyseal plate
The stem cells of osteoclasts are monocytes
Which of the following is mismatched? parathyroid hormone - increases calcium loss in the kidneys
The proportion of collagen to hydroxyapatite in bone determines the Selected Answer: The proportion of collagen to hydroxyapatite in bone determines strength of the bone.
Brittle bone disorder is another name for osteogenesis imperfecta.
What chemical causes a decrease in the blood calcium level? calcitonin
The type of cartilage associated with bone function and development is hyaline cartilage.
Important functions of the skeletal system include protection of the brain and soft organs.
The most common bone disease is osteoporosis. The most common consequence of this disease is fractures.
Rickets is a disease in children characterized by soft, bowed, and swollen bones.
Which type of bone appears porous? spongy bone
What chemical ingested or synthesized by the body is necessary for calcium absorption from the intestines? vitamin D
the longitudinal growth of long bones ceases when the epiphyseal plate is completely replaced with bone tissue.
Osteomalacia is Selected Answer: disease in adults characterized by softening of bones resulting from calcium depletion
Collagen and calcium hydroxyapatite are the primary constituents of Collagen and calcium hydroxyapatite are the primary bone matrix.
What is the membrane that lines the medullary cavity? endosteum
Osteoclast activity would decrease when ________ levels are elevated. calcitonin.
Which type of bone cells lie in lacunae? osteocytes
Which of the following statements about bone remodeling and repair is correct? Exposure of a bone to increased mechanical stress can lead to bone remodeling.
Which type of bone cells are large cells that form from fusion of monocytes? osteoclasts
What is the end of a long bone? epiphysis
Some marrow of long bones is termed "yellow" marrow under normal conditions. The function of yellow marrow is to Some marrow of long bones is termed "yellow" marrow under store adipose tissue.
Which of the following statements about bone growth is TRUE? Endochondral growth in long bones occurs at the epiphyseal plate.
Osteogenesis imperfecta can be caused by abnormally formed collagen.
Which of the following statements regarding PTH (parathyroid hormone) is true? Selected Answer: Which of the following statements regarding PTH (parathyroid PTH causes increased reabsorption of Ca2+ in the kidneys.
Osteoarthritis is the most common type of arthritis.
A place where two or more bones come together is a(n) joint and an articulation.
Synovial joints are different from both fibrous and cartilaginous joints because synovial joints are enclosed by a joint capsule.
Bowing the head is an example of flexion.
Which of the following joints is most movable? synovial
Which of the following movements is an example of extension? using your finger to point out an area on a map
Gout is Selected Answer: a metabolic disorder caused by increased uric acid in blood.
Turning a structure around its longitudinal axis is called rotation.
Rheumatoid arthritis is a condition that may involve an autoimmune disease.
The function of a bursa is to provide a fluid-filled cushion that reduces friction.
The symphysis pubis is between the two pubic bones.
The opposite of depression is elevation.
Synovial fluid decreases friction between bones.
The fibrous capsule is a layer of tissue that is continuous with the periosteum.
The subscapular and subacromial bursa are associated with the _________ joint. shoulder
A sharp object penetrated a synovial joint. From the following list of structures, select the order in which they were penetrated. (1) tendon or muscle (2) ligament (3) fibrous capsule (4) skin (5) synovial membrane 4, 1, 2, 3, 5
Which of the following is a synovial joint? atlanto-occipital
Cartilaginous joints Selected Answer: unite two bones by means of fibrocartilage or hyaline cartilage.
Most of the joints in the appendicular skeleton are _____ joints. synovial
The type of movement between carpal bones is described as gliding.
An example of a symphysis is the intervertebral joint.
Which of the following does NOT occur due to the effects of aging on the joints? increased production of synovial fluid
Arthritis is an inflammation of any joint.
The joint between the teeth and the mandibular alveolus is an example of a gomphosis.
The thick fibrocartilage disks found in the knee joint are called menisci.
Which of the following types of joints is mismatched with its location? ellipsoid - between femur and tibia
Abnormal forced extension beyond normal range of motion is called hyperextension.
The joint between the head of the radius and the proximal end of the ulna is a _____ joint. pivot
The sacroiliac joint is between the sacrum and coxa.
The cubital or elbow joint is an example of a _____ joint. hinge
Joints are classified according to the structure of the joint.
Which of the following pairs of terms are opposites? plantar flexion - dorsiflexion
The atlantoaxial joint is between the atlas and axis.
Standing on one's toes is an example of a movement called plantar flexion.
Articular cartilage covers the ends of bones in synovial joints.
This type of joint is multiaxial allowing a wide range of movement. This type of joint is multiaxial allowing a wide range of ball and socket
The muscles that hold the humeral head within the glenoid cavity are collectively called the rotator cuff.
Osteoarthritis usually is caused by wear and tear of the joint.
The synovial membrane lines the joint everywhere except over the articular cartilage.
A joint that has no joint cavity and exhibits little or no movement would be classified as a fibrous joint.
Which of the following movements is possible at the hip or coxal joint? rotation flexion adduction circumduction
In the TMJ joint, the mandible articulates with the temporal bone.
A joint that consists of two opposed flat surfaces of approximately equal size is a _____ joint. A joint that consists of two opposed flat surfaces of plane
A pivot joint restricts movement to rotation.
Created by: alexs13
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