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Vocabulary chapter 5,6 &7

Enzymes large globular proteins, names that end in ---ase, regulate complex biochemical reactions by reducing activation energy, substrate, active site, specificity
substrates As catalysts, each enzyme acts on a specific substance, called the enzyme's substrate
adenosine triphosphate (ATP)
catabolic reactions couple with ATP synthesis
anabolic reactions couple with ATP breakdown
catabolism in living cells, the enzyme -regulated chemical reactions that release energy / provides energy and building block for anabolism
anabolism mostly involved enzyme-regulated energy-requiring reactions / uses energy and building blocks to build large molecules
metabolism the sum of the chemical reaction within a living organism
metabolic pathway is a sequence of enzymatically catalyzed chemical reactions in a cell
nitrogen cycle key component in proteins, DNA, RNA and plant chlorophyll
collision theory states that chemical reactions can occur when atoms, ions, and molecules collide the energy transferred by the particles in the collision can disrupt their electron structures enough to break chemical bonds or form new bonds
activation energy is needed to disrupt electronic configurations, the amount of energy needed to disrupt the stable electronic configuration of any specific molecule so that the electrons can be rearranged
reaction rate the frequency of collisions with enough energy to bring about a reaction
turnover number the maximum number of substrate molecules an enzyme converts to product each second, generally 1 to 10000 and can be as high as 500,000
enzyme-substrate complex a temporary union of an enzyme and its substrate
apoenzyme the protein portion of an enzyme, which requires activation by coenzyme
cofactor the nonprotein component of an enzyme, a microorganism or molecule that acts with other to synergistically enhance or cause disease
coenzyme a non protein substance that is associated with and that activated an enzyme
holoenzyme an enzyme consisting of an apoenzyme and a cofactor
oxidoreductase oxidation-reduction, in which oxygen and hydrogen are gained or lost examples; cytochrome oxidase, lactate dehydrogenase
transferase transfer of functional groups, such as an amino group, acetyl group, or phosphate group example; acetate kinase, alanine deaminase
hydrolase hydrolysis (addition of water) example; lipase and sucrase
lyase removal of groups of atoms without hydrolysis example; oxalate decarboxylase, isocitrate lyase
isomerase rearrangement of atoms within a molecule example; glucose-phosphate isomerase, alanine racemase
ligase joining of two molecules (using energy usually derived from the breakdown of ATP) examples; acetyl-CoA synthetase, DNA ligase
nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) a coenzyme that functions in the removal and transfer of hydrogen ion (H-) and electrons from substrate molecules
NADP+ a coenzyme similar to NAD+
flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) flavin adenine dinucleotide; a coenzyme that functions in the removal and transfer of hydrogen ions (H1) and electrons from substrate molecules
flavin mononucleotide (FMN) flavin mononucleotide; a coenzyme that functions in the transfer of electrons in the electron transport chain
Coenzyme A(CoA) a coenzyme that functions in decarboxylation
denaturation a change in the molecular structure of a protein, usually making it nonfunctional
denaturation of a protein breaking of noncovalent bonds (such as hydrogen bonds) that hold the active protein in its three dimensional shape renders the denatured protein nonfunctional
saturation the condition in which the active site on an enzyme is occupied by the substrate or product at all times. In a fatty acid, having no double bonds
competitive inhibitor a chemical that competes with normal substrate for the active site of an enzyme.
enzyme inhibitors an uninhibited enzyme and its normal substrate, a competitive inhibitor, one type of noncompetitive inhibitor, causing allosteric inhibition
noncompetitive inhibitor an inhibitory chemical that does not compete with the substrate for an enzyme's active site.
allosteric inhibition the process in which an enzyme's activity is changed because of binding to the allosteric site.
allosteric site the site on an enzyme at which a noncompetitive inhibitor binds
feedback inhibition or end-product inhibition inhibition of an enzyme in a particular pathway by the accumulation of the end-product of the pathway; also called end-product inhibition
ribozyme an enzyme consisting of RNA that specifically acts on strands of RNA to remove introns and splice together the remaining exons
oxidation the removal of electrons from a molecule
reduction the addition of electrons to a molecule
oxidation-reduction a coupled reaction in which one substance is oxidized and one is reduced; also called redox reaction
stopped at page 118
Created by: sillylilia
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