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DNH 130 Test 2

Chapters 20,21,22,29,32,34

QuestionAnswer
Types of restorations metallic non metallic
What type of restoration can sometimes mimic decay composite
define incipient decay caries confined to enamel
define moderate day caries extends to DEJ but does not cross DEJ junction
define advanced decay caries extends through DEJ involving enamel and dentin
define severe decay caries extend though DEJ about halfway to pulp
how do occlusal caries start pin point lesion, fanning out to become broad based as it approaches DEJ, goes back to point as approaches pulp
define cervical burnout area of radiolucency at the CEJ due to a decrease in density of the tooth
The interpretation of periodontal disease recommends higher/lower kVp higher
Lamina dura bone surrounding roots of the teeth (radiopaque)
alveolar crest most coronal portion of alveolar bone, found between teeth. dense (radiopaque)
periodontal ligament space thin radiolucent line between the tooth and lamina dura (radiolucent)
What are the patterns of bone loss? horizontal or vertical
What are the types of distribution of bone loss localized for generalized
What are the severity classification of bone loss slight moderate severe
Bone loss is not pathologic until greater the approximately? 2mm
How many mm is slight bone loss? 1-2mm
how many mm is moderate bone loss? 3-4mm
how many mm is severe bone loss? 5mm +
ADA Classification is based on the severity of periodontal condition, bone loss, bleeding, and probing depths
ADA case type I gingivitis no bone loss alveolar crest is 1-2 mm apical to CEJ
ADA case type II mild periodontitis alveoloar bone level 3-4 mm below CEJ bleeding may occur on probing
ADA case III moderate bone loss bone level 4-6 mm below CEJ possible furcation involvement
ADA case type IV advanced or severe bone loss 6mm or greater bone level below CEJ possible furcation and mobility
predisposing factors for boneloss calculus defective restos
What does overexposed film/receptor look like? film is dark, due to increased settings
correction for overexposed film? check exposure factors, kVp, et, mA
what is the correct placement for PA receptor covers entire tooth including apex and extends 1/8th of an inch incisally and 2-3mm past the apex
what is a dropped film corner teeth appear to be dipping downward, receptor slipped and is not parallel to incisal or occlusal surfaces
what causes overlapping incorrect horizontal angulation
what causes elongation, foreshortening incorrect vertical angulation
Where should the film be placed on a premolar bitewing line up front edge of film in the middle of the canine
where should the film be placed on the molar bitewing front edge of film over midline of 2nd premolar
what is phalngioma outline of finger bone
what causes herringbone pattern on film reversed film
purpose of occlusal films locate retained roots supernumeray teeth foreign bodies salivary stones fractures cleft palate changes in max or mand size cysts and tumors exam when pt can not open wide
what size receptor is used for occlusal shot 4
vertical angulation for topographic +65
pediatric and lateral projection +60
for mandibular occlusal survey- the vertical angulation for topograpahic projection -55
Cross sectional +90
what is localization techniques method to obtain information on the location of an object in the jaws, uses two radiographs at different angulations, establishes buccal/lingual positon
procedure of technique first film is taken at proper angulation, second film is taken changing the horizontal or vertical angulation
what is the SLOB rule Same Lingual, Opposite Buccal
If the image of the object moves mesially when the tubehead is moved mesially (same direction) then the object is located on the ________ lingual
If the image of the object moves distally when the tubehead moves mesially (opposite direction) then the object is located on the _______ buccal
air space seen on panos palatoglossal air, nasopharyngeal air, glossopharyngeal air
mandibular landmarks on pano condyle coronoid notch cornoid process mandibular foramen lingual mandibular canal mental foramen hyoid bone mental ridge lingual foramen genial tubericles inferior border of mandible mylohyoid ridge internal and external oblique ridge
soft tissue images tongue, soft palate, uvula, lipline, ear
maxillary landmarks on pano mastoid, styloid process, external audiotory meatus, glenoid fossa, articular eminence, lateral pterygoid plate, pterygomaxillary fissure, max tuberosity, nasal cavity, nasal conchae, nasal septum, hard palate, max sinus, floor of max sinus, zygo etc
tomography sectioning certain parts of the body for optimum viewing quality (eg. maxilla and mandible) while blurring other images in other planes of the film.
Rotation The film and x-ray tubehead move around the patient in opposite directions in panoramic radiography
what is the rotation center point or axis which the cassette carrier and tubehead rotate
The focal trough is 3d curved zone or spot where the dental arches must be positioned to achieve the clearest image
jaws postioned outside the focal trough will create images that are.....? blurred or distorted
real image structures that lie between the receptor and the moving rotation center and appear in the correct anatomic position
double image structure is BEHIND the moving rotation center, and is penetrated by the beam twice double image on opposite sides (cervical spine)
ghost image lies outside focal spot and close to beam, appears blurred, magnificed and higher than the original object (earrings glasses)
equipment for pano unit screen film intesifying screens cassette
what does the collimator look like for pano thin narrow rectangle
The beam is directed slightly upward
tubehead rotates behind patient
film rotates in front of patient
frankfort plane line that passes from the top of the ear canal to outer canthus of eye
What happened when the apices of the max anterior teeth are obscured? the tongue was not placed on the roof of the mouth , radiolucent shadow is superimposed
Reverse smile cause... hard palate and floor of nasal cavity are superimposed over roots of max teeth loss of detail in max incisal area max incisors blurred and magnified patients chin (frankfort plane) tipped upward
Exaggerated smile line -madibular incisors appear blured loss of detal in mand. incisor area missing condyles patients chin is tipped downward
when teeth are placed too far anterior on bite block anterior teeth appear skinny and out of focus , overlapping premolars
when teeth are too far posterior teeth appear fat and out of focus
when patients head is not center one side of film appearing magnified
when patient is not sitting or standing up straight cervical spine appears as radiopacity in center of film
disadvantages of pano image quality focal trough limitations distortion cost
advantages of pano field size simplicity cooperation minimal radiation exposure
visual characteristics of radiograph density contrast
density overall blackness of dental radiograph
exposure factors that influence density mA kVp ET subject thickness
increase density radiogrpah appears darker
decrease density radiograph appears lighter
contrast diff in light and darkness of images on the radiograph
high contrast distinct difference between light and dark- detection of caries
low contrast many shades of gray- detection of periodontal disease
factors that influence contrast kVp, film, subject
What ist he only exposure factor that affects contrast kVp
what does kVp control the energy of penetrating abilyt of the xrays
step wege monitors film quality and control tests for film density and contrast
short scale contrast shows only two densities.. black and white, low kVp, higher contrast
long scale contrast many shades of gray higher kvp, low contrast
geometric chracteristics sharpness magnification distortion
factors that influence sharpness -focal spot size, the smaller the focal spot, the sharper the image -film composition, smaller crystals produce sharper outlines - movement of patient
magnification influencing factors target to receptor distance object to receptor distance
factors that influence distortion object receptor alignment xray beam angulation
Created by: kbowman12