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biology test review

TermDefinition
cell theory all living things are made of one or more cells, two cells are the base units of structure are function in organisms, and all cells arise from other cells
cell membrane encloses the cell and separates the cell interior
cytoplasm the cell interior
cytoskeleton a structure of microscopic fibers
ribosomes the cellular structure on which proteins are made
prokaryote a single celled organism that lacks a nucleus and other internal compartments
eukaryote an organism whose cells have a nucleus
cell wall provides structure and support
flagella long threadlike structures that protrude from the cell's surface and enable movement
nucleus an internal compartment that houses the cell's DNA
organelle a structure that carries specific activities in the cell
cilia these protrude from the surface of some eukaryotic cells. These either propel some cells around their environment or move things across the surface of a cell
phospholipid a lipid made of phosphate in a group of fatty acids
lipid bilayer phospholipids arranged in a double layer
endoplasmic reticulum an extensive system of internal membranes that move proteins and other substances
vesticle a small membrane bound sack that transports substances in cells
golgi apparatus a set of flattened membrane bound sacks that serves as a packaging and distribution center
lysosomes small spherical organelles that contain the cell's digestive enzyme
mitochondria an organelle that harvests energy from organic compounds to make ATP
chloroplasts organelles that use light energy to make carbohydrates from carbon dioxide and water
central vacuole stores water and may contain many substances including ions, nutrients, and wastes
diffusion the movement of particles from a high density to a low density in and around the cell
osmosis the movement of water molecules or other solvents from high density to low density in and around the cell
molecular movements hypertonic, hypotonic, and isotonic
isotonic the density of solute and solvent is the same on the inside and outside of the cell
hypotonic the density on one side of the cell membrane is less dense
hypertonic the density on one side of the cell membrane is more dense
Created by: Gen.wey