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Musculoskeletal A+P

ISSA Personal Training 9th Edition Unit 3

Actin Long, thin contractile filaments.
Action the specific movement that each muscle is capable of and or responsible for.
Adenosine Triphosphate An organic compound found in muscle, which, upon being broken down enzymatically, yields energy for muscle contraction.
Aerobic Occuring with the use of oxygen, or requiring oxygen
All or None Reaction Concept stating that a unit is either fully relaxed or contracted. never partially contracted.
Anaerobic Occurring without the use of Oxygen
Anatomy The science of the structure of the human body
Appendicular Skeleton Bones consisting of th eloper and lower extremities, including the pelvic and shoulder girdles.
Axial Skeleton Bones consisting oft skull, spine, ribs, and sternum
Ballistic Movements Muscle contractions that exhibit maximum velocities and accelerations over a very short period of time. They exhibit high firing rates, high force production, and very brief contraction times.
Biochemistry the branch of science concerned with the chemical and physicochemical process that occur within living organisms.
Capillarization an increase in size and number of tiny blood vessels surrounding a cell.
Cartilage a firm elastic flexible white material found at the ends of ribs, between vertebrae (discs) and joint surfaces, and in the nose and eats.
Collagen Fibrous protein that forms tough connective tissue.
Concentric a contraction in which a muscle lengthens and overcomes a resistance.
Creatine Phosphate (CP)A high energy phosphate molecule that is stored in cells and can be used to immediately resynthesize ATP
Creatine Organic acid generally found in the muscles as phosphocreatine that supplies energy for muscle contraction.
Eccentric A contraction in which a muscle lengthens and is overcome by a resistance.
Elastin elastic fibrous protein found in connective tissues.
Feedback loop section of a control system that serves as a regulatory mechanism; return input as some of the output.
hypertrophy An increase in cross-sectional size of a muscle in response to strength training.
Innervation the specific distribution or supply of nerves to particular part of the body.
Insertion the distal attachment, the insertion is generally considered the most movable part of the part that attaches farthest from the midline of the body.
Involuntary Muscle Tissues Receive nerve fibers from the autonomic nervous system and count be voluntarily controlled, except in a few rare cases.
Isometric a contraction in which the muscle develops tension but does not shorten
Isotonic a contraction in which the muscle shortens bu retains constant tensions.
Lactic Acid a byproduct of glucose and glycogen metabolism in anaerobic muscle energetics.
Ligament the fibrous connective tussle that connects bone to bone or bone to cartilage to hold together and support joints.
Muscle Spindles Sensory receptors within the belly of a muscle that primarily detect changes in the length of this muscle. Measures and delivers the quantity of muscle force needed to perform a given action.
Musculoskeletal System Body system that consist of the bones, joints, connective tissues, and muscles.
Musculotendinous or, relating to or affecting muscular and tendinous tissue.
Myofibrils Tiny fibrils that make up a single muscle fiber.
Myofilaments the elements of the muscle that actually shorten upon contraction; made up mainly of two types of protein: actin and myosin.
Myosin Short, which contractile filaments.
Origin Th proximal attachment, the origin is generally considered the lest movable part or the the part that attaches closest to the midline of the body.
Physiology The science concerned with the normal vital processes of animal and vegetable organisms
Proprioceptor Specialized sensory receptors located in tendons and muscles, sensitive to stretch, tension, pressure, and position of the body. Include, muscle spindles and Golgi Tendon Organ
Sarcoplasm Jelly like intracellular fluid found in the muscle fiber.
Size Principle of Fiber Recruitment Principle stating that muscle units are recruited in order of their recruitment thresholds and firing rates.
Skeletal System System of the body consisting of bone and cartilage that supports and protects the body.
Sliding Filament Theory Theory stating that myofibril contracts by the actin and myosin filaments living over each other.
Slow-twitch (Type 1) Muscle fibers that help enable lower intensity higher endurance movements such as Running, Characterized by its slow speed of contraction and high speed of aerobic glycolysis
Synovial FLuid a fluid that lubricates the smooth cartilage in joints.
Tendon the fibrous connective tissue that connects muscle to bone.
Type I Muscle fibers that helps enable lower intensity higher endurance movements such as running, characterized by its slow speed of contraction. Generates ATP predominately through the aerobic system of energy transfer
Type IIa A fast-twitch fiber subdivision characterized by a fast shortening speed and well-developed capacity for energy transfer from aerobic and anaerobic sources.
Type IIx A fast-twitch fiber subdivision characterized by the most rapid shortening velocity and greatest anaerobic potential.
Voluntary Muscle Tissues Receive nerve fibers from the somatic nervous system that can be voluntarily controlled.
Created by: pai2015.pi
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