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SLS Bio 12 Biomolecules - GN

Acid a liquid that has a pH between 0 - 6.9, contributes H ions into a solution, is corrosive, and turn litmus paper red
ATP (adenosine triphosphate) a molecule that carries /transports energy. The energy is stored in bonds between phosphates and is released when those bonds break
Amino acids an organic compound that forms protein, synthesizes hormones and is very important for human body
buffer used to regulate pH levels. It does this by donating or accepting H+ ions. Buffers can be overloaded though.
carbohydrate primarily sugars and starches, they provide the body with energy
complementary base pairing In the DNA model there are bases. The bases are A, C, G, T. These bases compliment each-other with A pairing with T and C pairing with G.
dehydration synthesis the process of joining two molecules together after the removal of water
DNA The self replicating material that holds genetic material. There are four complimentary bases and are the code for your genes
dipeptide a peptide that is made up of two amino-acids. a peptide is a short chain of amino acids
disaccharide a sugar formed of two monosaccharides. a saccharides is basically sugar
neutral fat a fat that is produced by dehydration synthesis. has alcohol like glycerol
nucleic acids a substance that is usually found in DNA and RNA. they are made up of nucleotides that are chained together
double helix the shape that DNA is in. Looks like a staircase
hemoglobin a protein molecule that is found in red blood cells. It carries oxygen from the lungs to the bodies tissue and does the reverse for carbon dioxide (brings carbon dioxide from the skin and to the lungs.
hydrogen bonding a bond between hydrogens. This holds water molecules together. weak if there are not many bonds but very strong if there is a lot.
hydrolysis when a chemical breaks down due to water.
lipid most fats, oils and waxes can be classified as lipids
monomer a molecule that can be bonded with to other molecules if they are the same. This creates a polymer
nucleotide they make up DNA and consist of a nucleotide linked to a phosphate group Sugar + base + phosphate= nucleotide
organic a molecule that has both carbon hydrogen.
peptide bond a chemical bond formed between two molecules (amino group and carboxyl group). Amino acids and the carboxyl group join to create a molecule of water.
pH The measurement of hydrogen ion concentration. determines if a solution is acidic or basic.
phospholipid a lipid that contains phosphate
polarity the charge of a molecule that reacts with another one to pull it together. Usually a negative and positive charge
polymer a large molecule made up of repeating subunits
polypeptide a type of polymer that consists of a chain of amino acids
polysaccharide is a carbohydrate made up of bonded sugar molecules (glucose). Starch is a polysaccharide.
primary structure the sequence of amino acids that form a protein or polypeptide chain. Most basic structure.
protein a polymer of amino acid. They help build muscle and act as enzymes, receptors, transport molecules, etc... Very important for body!
quaternary structure a structure made up of proteins (protein complex) that form through non-covalent bonds (includes DNA).
R-group the R/Radical group Is a group of the amino acids. It determines if an acid will be acidic or basic and polar or non-polar
ribonucleic acid (RNA) the nucleic acid that transports instructions from the DNA on the synthesis of proteins.
Saturated fatty acid a fatty acid but there is only one bond between carbon atoms (Normal fatty acids have two bonds. fatty acids are long chains of hydrocarbon.
secondary structure (learn more) a structure of protein that is in the process of becoming a tertiary structure
solvent a substance that is able to dissolve other substances
starch a carbohydrate that is made out of glucose
steroid are hormones and proteins that balance metabolism, inflammation, immune functions, salt and water balance, development of sexual characteristics.
tertiary structure is a 3rd dimensional structure of proteins and nucleic
unsaturated fatty acid a fat made of double carbon bonds and is a slow digestible. When looking at it it will usually have a bend.
Nitrogenous base a nitrogenous base is part of DNA and RNA and is a building block for a nucleotide
Created by: Graeme.N



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