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Biology definitions

Cell Smallest working unit in a living organism
System A group of organs working together
Digest To break down large particles into smaller particles
Enzyme A protein that speeds up chemical reactions e.g amylase-starch
Peristalsis Muscular movement, in the digestive system, used to push food along
Sexual Reproduction Involved two parents where the male and female gametes fuse together to from a zygote
Fertilisation When the nucleus of the sperm joins with the nucleus of the egg to form a zygote
Menstrual Cycle The monthly series of changes a women’s body goes through in preparation for a potential pregnancy.
Pulse A vibration in an artery due to the beat of the heart
Cellular Respiration / Respiration The release of energy from food
External Respiration The way organisms take in oxygen for respiration and get rid of carbon dioxide and water vapour.
Diffusion/Gaseous Exchange When oxygen passes through the walls of the alveoli into the blood in capillaries and carbon dioxide passes from the blood through the walls of the capillaries into the alveoli to be released in respiration.
Energy The ability to do work
Work Done when the body is moving.
Aerobic Respiration The release of energy from food when oxygen is in the reaction.
Anaerobic Respiration The release of energy from food when oxygen is not in the reaction.
Photosynthesis The way plants make their own food using light
Health A state of complete physical, mental and social well-being
Hormones Proteins that bring about responses in the body
Nutrition Concerned with how an organism fetus it’s food and what type of food it gets
Deficiency Diseases Diseases caused by the lack of a particular food e.g Scurvy - Vit C
Microorganisms Very tiny living organisms that usually can only be seen using a microscope e.g bacteria
Vaccinations When a harmless version of a disease is introduced into a person in order to stimulate the production of anti-bodies and white blood cells against the disease
Pathogens Microorganisms that cause disease
Mutualism When two organisms live in close association and both benefit from this arrangement
Probiotics Living organisms that improve human heath
Asexual Reproduction Involves one parent with the offspring having identical genetic information to the parent e.g Strawberries
Variation The way members of the same species differ
Mutation Changes in the DNA that cause variation in members of the same species
Species A group of organisms that can breed with each other to from fertile offspring
Fertile That an organism is capable of producing offspring
DNA DeoxyriboNucleic Acid
Chromosomes Made up of lengths of DNA wrapped around proteins
Genes Lengths of DNA along a chromosome. Each gene controls the making of a parity all protein
Inheritance The way traits are passed from parent to offspring
Expressed (Genes) When the protein a gene is control is actually made
Genotype Genetic makeup of an individual
Phenotype Physical makeup of an individual
Dominant (Gene) A gene that prevents another gene from working
Recessive (Gene) A gene that is precedent from being expressed
Biodiversity All the different species of living organisms on Earth
Evolution The gradual changes that occur in species over many generations
Extinction Means that a particular species no longer exists e.g the dodo bird
Ecology The branch of biology that deals with the relationships of organisms to one another and their physical surroundings
Habitat The natural environment where and organism lives e.g Grassland
Community All the animals and plants that live in a particular area (habitat) and share the resources in this area
Ecological Niche And organisms role in its community, how it fits in and Interacts with other organisms.
Abiotic Factors The non living factors that affect organisms in their habitats e.g air temp, light intensity
Producers Green plants that are able to make their own food through photosynthesis
Consumers Organisms that feed on other organisms for their food
Decomposers Organism that break down dead plants and animals into materials that go back into the soil
Adaption The way an organism is suited to survive in its environment
Competitions (In habitats) The interaction between members of the same species or members of different species for resources that are in short supply of limited.
Interdependence The way one thing relies on another
Food Chain Shows the way energy is passed from one organism to another
Food Web Shows a number of interconnecting food chains
Frequency (in a habitat) The particular chance of finding a particular organism in one throw of a quadrat
Ecosystem A community of organisms that interact with each other and are affected by the abiotic, biotic, climatic and edaphic factors surrounding them
Population (of organisms) Is made up of members of the same species
Tropic level The position an organism occupies on the food chain
Energy Pyramid Shows the relationship between producers, primary, secondary and tertiary consumers
Ecological Biodiversity The different types of ecosystems on earth e.g terrestrial, aquatic
Conservation The wise management of a natural resource to prevent exploitation, destruction or neglect
Fertile Period (12-17) time during cycle when women’s most likely to get pregnant
Created by: Ak0406
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