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Tempkin Ch 8

Embryology

TermDefinition
Embryology study of embryos and their development, from the beginning of gestation to the end of the second month (8 weeks gestation)
Embryo developmental stage of human offspring from implantation to to completion of the 8th post concept date
Cytogenesis stage of cell development
Histogenesis stage of formation of cells into tissue
Oraganpgenesis stage of formation of tissues into organs
Embryonic Stage stage of development from conception or uterine implantation to 8 weeks
Fetal Stage Stage of development from 8 weeks to birth
Ectoderm outermost layer of an embryo that develops into the epidermis, nervous tissue (brain, spinal cord, spine, spinal nerves), and sense organs
Mesoderm middle layer of the embryo from which the heart, early circulatory system, bones, muscles, kidneys, and reproductive system develop.
Endoderm innermost layer of an embryo, which develops into the respiratory and digestive tract linings and the urinary bladder
Gestational age estimate of embryonic/fetal age, which begins two weeks from the first day of the last menstrual period
Postovulatory Age length of time since last ovulation before pregnancy, used to assess embryonic age
Carnegie Stages system used by embryologists to assess embryo development using a numbering system that is based on morphologic features and age
Vitelline Artery Complex developing arteries that branch anteriorly from aorta and branch into the yolk sac
Umbilical Arteries arteries that branch off inferior aspect of anterior aorta and return deoxygenated blood to the placenta
Vitelline Veins veins that carry blood from the yolk sac to the developing embryo
Cardinal Venous System portion of the embryo that, along with the embryonic vitelline vein, eventually develops into the inferior vena cava and tributaries
Subcardinal Veins veins in the early embryo that contribute to the development of prerenal and renal portions of the inferior vena cava, carrying venous blood from the renal and urogenital tracts
Supracardinal Veins veins in the early embryo that contribute to the development of prerenal and renal portions of the IVC, carrying blood from the body wall of the embryo
Proximal Vitelline Veins veins in the early embryo that contribute to development of the hepatic portion of the IVC
Accessory Gastrointestinal (GI) Organs Liver, pancreas, and biliary system, which assist gastrointestinal tract function
Septum Transversum embryonic structure that becomes connective tissue framework for the liver
Fetus unborn fetus following the eighth week of development, gestation from the third to ninth months
Foregut develops from the primitive gut and gives rise to portions of the mouth, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, and proximal duodenum
Midgut develops from the primitive gut and gives rise to the latter portion of the duodenum, small bowel, and proximal colon
Hindgut develops from the primitive gut and gives rise to the distal portion of the colon
Tailgut part of the primitive gut that reabsorbs during the embryonic stage
Umbilical Veins veins that carry blood from the embryonic portion of the placenta to the embryonic heart. Some of these veins degenerate, and the remaining left umbilical vein carries all the blood from the placenta to the fetus.
Ductus Venosus shunts oxygenated blood past the liver directly into the IVC
Ligamentum Teres postnatal Degeneration of the umbilical Vein
Ligamentum Vensoum postnatal ductus venosus
Hemopoiesis production of red blood cells
Pronephros first of three stages of renal development
Mesonephros second of three stages of renal development
metanephros third and last stage of renal development
Wolffian Ducts paramesonephric ducts that develop alongside the mesonephras(second stage of kidney development) into the male genital tract
Reticuloendothelial network of cells and connective tissue
phagocytosis engulfment of harmful substances by lymphocytes
Embryogenesis formation and growth of an embryo
Peristalsis movement of intestines that propels internal contents forward
Meconium discharge of fetal bowel, composed of cells, mucus and bile
Genital Tubercle elevated area between coccyx and umbilical cord in both male and female embryos, in males, tubercle elongates to become the penis
Mullerian Ducts paramesonephric ducts that develop alongside the mesonephros(second stage of kidney development) into the female genital tract
Mammary Ridges tissue along each side of the developing embryo from which breast tissue will develop
Neural Tube arises from the neurologic plate to form the early brain
Prosencephalon forebrain from which the paired olfactory bulbs and optic tracts, as well as the unpaired pineal and pituitary glands, are formed
Diencephalon composed of the thalamus and hypothalamus. Located in the center of the brain just above the brain stem
Telencephalon end brain from which the cerebral hemispheres, basal ganglia, and lateral ventricles are formed
Myelination lipoprotein covering of nerve fibers
Created by: Sierd98765