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GIT Pathogens

Gastrointestinal Pathogens from UniMelb MIIM20002

PathogenSymptomsSourceVirulenceDiagnosis
Staphylococcus aureus Intoxication bact. D, V, nausea Milk products, ham, cooked foods IP: 2-6h ID: med normal flora, prexisting toxin VF: ST BP biochemical EIA
Bacillus cereus (emeric) Intoxication bact. V (occ. D) Rice, cereals IP: 1-5h ID: low VF: emeric ST
Bacillus cereus (diarrhoeal) Intoxication bact. D (rare V) Meats, canned, reheated foods IP: 6-24h ID: med VF: LT, haemolysin
Clostridium perfringens Intoxication bact. D (rice water stools), abdominal pain Meats, poultry, reheated foods IP: 6-24h ID: high VF: LT, spores
Vibrio chlorae luminal infection bact. D (profuse) dehydration water, shellfish IP: 6h-5d ID: high TCP used to colonise, flagella help burrow into mucous, cholera toxin released VF: TCP, cholera toxin TCBS 24-48h- yellow
Vibrio parahaemolyticus luminal infection bact. D (profuse), V, fever water: shellfish, brined vegetables IP: 4-24h TCBS 24-48h- green
Enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC) luminal infection bact. D water/food IP: 14-30h ID: high VF: CFA, LT, ST MAC, DCA 24h PCR (LT/ST)
Enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC) luminal infection bact. D water/food IP: 6h-2d BFP used for loose atachment, A/E lesions from close attachment T3SS injects Tir allowing intimin to bind, actin reeangement to form pedestal. VF: BFP, T3SS, Tir, inimin MAC, DCA 24h PCR (bfpA/intimin gene) immunofluroecsent microscopy
Enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC) BD meats, animals IP: 1-8d T3SS injects Tir allowing intimin to bind, actin reeangement to form pedestal. Shiga toxins stop protein synthesis- killing cells VF: Shiga toxin (Stx1/2), T3SS, Tir, intimin MAC, SMAC (O147:H7 only) 24h PCR (sst1/2/intimin gene)
Shigella spp. invasive infection bact. BD, V, fever meats, chicken, eggs, dairy IP: 8h-3d ID: low Invade M cells (Ipa proteins) --> lamina propria. Engulfed by, then lyse macrophages, nuetrophil migration enlarging tight junctions Invade basal surface of enerocytes. IcsA recruits actin tail, propelling into nearby cells VF: Ipa proteins, T3SS, IcsA MAC, DCA 24h biochemical (O antigens)
Salmonella spp. invasive infection bact. D, V, fever meats, chicken, eggs, dairy IP: 8h-3d ID: high invades M cells and enterocytes using SIPs, escaping though basal surface. Engulfed by macrophages (SPI-2 neutrilises lysosomes) transporting to lymph nodes for replication. May cause transient bacteremia VF: SPI-1/2, T3SS, SIP & SSA proteins MAC, DCA- yellow, black dots, SEL 24h biochemical (O/H antigens), PFGE, phage typing
Yersinia spp. invasive infection bact. D, post-infection arthiritus beef, milk (cattle) invades M cells, taken up by macrophages, inhibiting phagocytosis, using as a transport system. Invades basolater surface of epitelial cells. T3SS used to dirsupt immune system with YOPs, inducing many cellular responses. VF: adhesin, T3SS, YOPs CIN 25`C- bulls eye urease +ve, oxidase -ve
Campylobacter spp. invasive infection bact. (B)D, fever, adbominal pait chicken, untreated water/milk IP: 2-4d ID: high CAMP (microaerophillic) 42`C 48h
Rotavirus virus (N-E. dsRNA) D seasonal, asymptomatic excretors IP: ~2d ID: very low icosahedral multilayered protein coat (hardy) segmented dsRNA genome. Penetrates cells at tips of villi using VP4 (trypsin), replicates in cytoplasm using its RDRP VF: VP4, NSP4 anigen detection assays, electron microscopy (agglutinated)
Norovirus virus (N-E. ssRNA) D, V seasonal close quarters, food/water/surface contamination IP: 1-2d most common cause of GIT in adults, explosive outbreaks, binds to histo blood group (O/A), villi bluntening, transient alabsorbtion of fat/lactose RT-PCR (viral RNA), EIA (viral antigen), electron microscopy
Adenovirus virus (N-E. dsDNA) D, V, abdominal cramps Typically upper respiritory virus, serotypes 40, 41 cause GE. Late shedding antigen detection (chromographic immunoassay)
Hepatitus A virus (N-E. ssRNA) NOT GE!: hepatitus food/water, shellfsh, bile enters bloodstream via peyer's patches, spreads to liver. Virions secreted in bile
Entomoeba histolytica protozoa BD, fever, stomach pain, cramps food/water, developing countries ID: low cyst (dormant, resistant, infectious) and trophozoite (growing, disease causing). Kills macroophages, neutrophis, IgA, IgG, evade complement, ingesting dead cells VF: parasite lectin, amebapores, cysteine protease microscopy (cysts) serology (antigens/antibodies) metronidazole (targets anerobic mechanism)
Giardia spp. protozoa D (grumbly, windy), wasting cyst (dormant, resistant, infectious) and trophozoite (growing, disease causing). 2 nuclei, 8 flagella and sucking disc to adhere to intestinal wall microscopy (cysts) serology (antigens) metronidazole (targets anerobic mechanism)
Cryptosporidium spp. protozoa D, V, nausea, cramps, fever, severe dehydration water, pools, shellfish IP: 1-10d IS: low complex (sexual and asexual, with oocyst as dormant infections stage) VF: proteases microscopy (oocysts after acid-fast sain) EIA (antigens) imm.competant: nitazoxanide (targets anerobic mechanism)
Created by: Vortex740