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Yr12 Gene Expression

Definitions for Gene Expression AS91159

Amino Acids The building blocks of proteins
Anticodon The region of a transfer RNA with a sequence of three bases that are complementary to a codon in the messenger RNA
Complementary Base –Pairing Rule The rule governing the pairing of complementary bases in DNA. A-T, C-G.
Coding strand The DNA strand with the same base sequence as the RNA transcript produced (although with thymine replaced by uracil in mRNA)
Codon Three base code on the mRNA that codes for an amino acid
Cystic Fibrosis Mutations in the CFTR gene cause cystic fibrosis, which is an inherited recessive autosomal disorder causing excess mucus particularly in their lungs. They cannot transport negatively charged particles (chloride ions) into and out of cells.
Degeneracy A feature of the genetic code whereby several codons code for a single amino acid. This feature can lead to redundancy.
DNA Deoxyribonucleic acid. A huge molecule of adjoining nucleotides shaped into a double helix.
Enzyme A globular protein which acts as a catalyst to speed up a specific biological reaction
Exons The protein coding regions of DNA
Gene Expression The process by which information from a gene is used to produce a functional gene product.
Genetic Code A set of rules by which information encoded in DNA or mRNA is translated into proteins
Haemophilia Haemophilia is a lifelong blood clotting disorder, able to be managed with treatment. It is hereditary(X-linked recessive) and most usually only males suffer the symptoms.
Introns The non protein coding regions of DNA
Metabolic Pathway A series of enzyme controlled chemical reactions that modify a principle chemical into an end product
Metabolism All the chemical reactions taking place in the cells of an organism.
Mutagen Mutation causing substance e.g. ionising radiation, poisons (glue, paint), viruses, alcohol, tobacco smoke
Mutation A change to the DNA sequence of an organism. This may be a deletion, insertion, duplication, inversion or translocation of DNA in a gene or chromosome
Nitrogenous Base One of the components that make up a nucleotide; thymine, cytosine, guanine, adenine or uracil.
Nucleic acid Special chemical that stores information that controls cellular activity e.g. DNA and RNA Made up of repeating units called nucleotides.
Nucleotide The structural unit of nucleic acids, DNA and RNA/building blocks of DNA
Phenylketonuria An inherited metabolic disorder caused by the lack of an enzyme converting phenylalanine to tyrosine, resulting in mental retardation.
Phenotype Observable characteristics in an organism.
Polypeptide chain A protein. Amino acids are linked together by peptide bonds forming protein chains.
Redundancy When a point mutation occurs in a base and the same amino acid is coded for. This occurs because of degeneracy of the genetic code.
RNA Ribose Nucleic acid, single stranded nucleic acid
Sickle cell anaemia Sickle cell disease is a mutation on chromosome 11, inherited in an autosomal recessive pattern. Haemoglobin molecules become sickle shaped. They are less efficient at transporting oxygen, get stuck in capillaries, causing pain and damage to the organs.
Template Strand The sequence of DNA that is copied during the synthesis of mRNA
Transcription The stage of gene expression in which mRNA is produced .
Translation The stage of gene expression in which mRNA is decoded to produce a specific polypeptide.
Triplet Three base code on DNA that codes for an amino acid
Created by: kjsime