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BIOLOGY GLOSSARY 6

glossary terms chapter 6

QuestionAnswer
Action Potential the reversal of the resting potential difference across a plasma membrane (between the intracellular and extracellular voltage), typically of a neuron
Amino-acid-derived hormone small signalling molecules derived from the amino acids tyrosine and tryptophan. They include thyroid hormones (hydrophobic) and catecholamines (hydrophilic)
Amplificiation the process of increasing the strength of a cellular signal, typically by increasing the number of molecules involved at each step of a transduction cascade
Apoptosis regulated and programmed cell death. The controlled destruction of the cell does not spill the contents and does not trigger an immune response
Apoptosome a large protein formed in the process of apoptosis. It is made up of cytochrome c and a protein called Apaf-1
Autocrine signalling a type of chemical signalling in which the signalling molecule is received by the same cell or cell type that secreted it
Bcl-2 a family of proteins that regulate apoptosis
Bleb a protrusion or bulge of the plasma membrane of a cell
Cascade a multi-step process in which each step must occur in a set order with each step triggering the next in the sequence
Caspase one of a group of enzymes involved in protein and DNA cleavage. Caspases are involved in apoptosis
Cytokine one of a group of peptides and proteins released from cells that are important in cell signalling, particularly between cells of the immune system
Death receptor specific receptors on the outer surface of cells that will bind to cytokines and initiate the extrinsic pathway of apoptosis
Effector cell cell that responds to signalling molecules. For example, a cell in which a signal transduction pathway activates an enzyme and causes a metabolic change in the cell
Endocrine signalling a mode of transmission for signalling molecules that act on cells that are far from the cell that secretes them
Hormone a molecule that regulates the growth or activity of those cells capable of responding to it (target cells). Hormones are produced by specialised cells within an organism
Ion channel a transmembrane protein that forms a pore in the plasma membrane to allow the passage of charged particles (ions) across the membrane
Peptide and protein hormones hydrophilic signalling molecules that are peptides, such as insulin, or proteins, such as growth hormone and follicle stimulating hormone
Post synaptic neuron a neuron to which an electrical impulse is transmitted across a synaptic cleft by the release of neurotransmitters from the axon terminal of a presynaptic neuron
Response the response is the action or change in functionality of a cell that occurs as a result of a specific stimulus. For example, the release of neurotransmitters into a synapse is the response to an action potential reaching the synapse is the response
Second messenger a group of small, non-protein molecules that are produced inside a cell when a signalling molecule binds to a receptor on the outer surface of the plasma membrane. The production of second messengers is a form of signal transduction
Signal transduction the process of transmitting
Steroid hormone
Stimulus
Stimulus-response model
Synapse
Synaptic terminal
Created by: emmawalton05