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glossary terms chapter 2

Active transport net movement of dissolved substances through a membrane from an area of low concentration to high concentration with the assistance of energy input and specific transport proteins
Amino acid the monomer of polypeptides. All amino acids contain an amine group at one end of the molecule and a carboxyl group at the other end
Biomacromolecule chain-like molecules called polymers. It is formed by joining together many monomers to form a chain. Examples are proteins and polysaccharides
Carbohydrate biomacromolecule made up of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen. It comes in 3 forms, mono, di and polysaccharides and they act as an important source of chemical energy, energy reserves, form structural components of DNA and RNA and combine to form glycoproteins
Cell membrane encloses the contents of cells and controls the movements of substances between the exterior and interior of cells. Also performs cell recognition and communication with other cells
Channel protein a type of protein found on the plasma membrane that is involved in facilitated diffusion
Compound a molecule containing two or more different elements
Concentration gradient the difference in concentration of a solute between one region and another, for example, across a membrane
Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) carries the instructions required to assemble proteins from amino acid subunits using a genetic code. It is passed from one cell to another during cell division. The 4 bases are adenine, thymine, guanine and cytosine
Diffusion the net movement of substances from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration and does not require energy
Disaccharide 'two sugars'. A carbohydrate formed when two monosaccharides combine
Endocytosis the bulk uptake of substances by regions of the plasma membrane that surround the substance and pinch off to form an intracellular vesicle
Eukaryote cell or organism with a membrane bound nucleus and organelles, like plants and animals
Facilitated diffusion net movement of a substance from an area of high concentration to low concentration through selective protein channels. No energy required
Fluid mosaic model according to this, plasma membranes consist of two layers of phospholipid molecules, with other molecules including proteins, carbohydrates, and cholesterol scattered throughout the membrane, hence mosaic
Hydrophilic polar ions and molecules that dissolve easily in water. 'Water loving'
Hydrophobic non-polar molecules that are relatively insoluble in water. 'Water hating'
Inorganic compound a compound that does not include carbon and are important for living organisms, like water, oxygen, carbon dioxide, and nitrogen
Integral protein proteins that are permanent and fundamental components of the plasma membrane. These are embedded in the phospholipid bilayer. Typically, they span the width of the plasma membrane with part of the protein being exposed on both sides of the membrane
Lipid an organic compound consisting of hydrogen, carbon and oxygen an they store energy
Monomer monosaccharide, a smaller subunit of a larger unit. It includes amino acids and nucleotides
Monosaccharide a molecule comprised of a single sugar, the most popular being glucose
Nucleic acid genetic material of all organisms that control cellular activities and is made up of nucleotides. DNA & RNA
Organelle specialised structures of a cell, like the nucleus, mitochondria, golgi apparatus, and each have a specific function
Organic compound compounds are molecules consisting of one or more types of atoms, and organic compounds contain carbon and oxygen
Osmosis net movement of water from areas of high concentration to low concentration of water
Passive transport the movement of molecules across the plasma membrane without the expenditure of energy, is passive
Peptide a polypeptide that consists of fewer then 50 amino acids
Peripheral proteins not embedded in the PB and bind to integral proteins or penetrate into one surface of the PM. Attached either to phospholipid molecules or to integral proteins in either layer of the PM. Function as enzymes, structural attachment points, recognition sites
Phospholipid component of the plasma membrane, comprised of a hydrophilic head and hydrophobic tail
Polar polar molecules have positive and negative regions. They have an unequal distribution of electrons and these molecules dissolve in water
Polymer a large molecule made up of smaller molecules
Polypeptide polymer of amino acids joined by peptide bonds
Polysaccharide polymers of sugar molecules made up of many sugars. Eg. glycogen, starch and cellulose
Prokaryote cell or organism without a membrane bound nucleus and organelles. eg. bacteria
Protein organic compound consisting of chains of amino acids connected by peptide bonds
Ribonucleic acid a nucleic acid of a single strand made up of sugars and bases and linked by bonds
Semi-permeable semi-permeable means it allows some substances through and others not (through the membrane)
Transmembrane protein a functional protein, often composed of more then one polypeptide molecule, which spans the entire thickness of the plasma membrane. Hydrophilic hormone receptors, ion channels, and ion pumps are all examples of transmembrane proteins
Transport vesicle vesicle that buds from the rough ER and contains materials that are to be transported to the golgi apparatus
Created by: emmawalton05