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ch 9// exam 2 review

What is inheritance? traits that are passed down
Who is Gregor Mandel? He came up with three principles of genetics: Law of Dominance, Law of segregation, Law of independent assortment
What is heredity ? the transmission of traits from one generation to the next
What are genetics? the scientific study of heredity
what is a character? a heritable feature that varies among individuals
What is a trait ? variant of a charcter
How did Mandel control his experiment ? he pollinated the plants by hand and always made sure of the parentage of his new plants
What is the P generation ? the parental plants
What is the F1 generation? the hybrid offspring of the p generation
What is the F2 generation? a cross of the F1 generation
What are alleles? genes
What are homozygous alleles? two identical alleles for a gene ex. HH or hh
What are heterozygous alleles? two different alleles for a gene ex. Hh
What is a dominant allele? Allele that is expressed over recessive
What is a recessive allele? Allele that isn't expressed in heterozygous organism
What is the law of segregation? The two alleles for each gene separate during gamete formation
What is a monohybrid cross? Punnet square with one gene
What is a dihybrid cross? Punnet square with 2 genes
What is a phenotype? physically expressed traits
What is a genotype? genetic code of traits
What is the locus? The position of a gene on a chromosome
What is the law of independent assortment? Alleles of genes on nonhomologous chromosomes assort independently during gamete formation
What is a test cross? The individual with the unknown genotype is crossed with a homozygous individual expressing the recessive trait
What is a wild type trait? the phenotype for a character most commonly observed in natural populations
What is a sex linked gene? A gene located on either sex chromosome ex: color blindness
What is hemophilia ? sex-linked recessive disorder defined by the absence of one or more of the proteins required for blood clotting
What is co-dominance? 2 dominant alleles are expressed at the same time in the heterozygote's phenotype
What is incomplete dominance ? One allele of a pair is not dominant over its partner so a new heterozygous phenotype emerges
Created by: itzy
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