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PLATE TECTONICS

SLHS PLATE TECTONICS

QuestionAnswer
theory proposed by Alfred Wegener that states that the continents were once joined as a super continent Continental Drift
large, ancient landmass that was composed of all the continents joined together   Pangea
Hess's theory that new seafloor is formed when magma is forced upward toward the surface at a mid-ocean ridge   Seafloor Spreading
theory that Earth's crust and upper mantle are broken into plates that float and move around on a plasticlike layer of the mantle   Plate Tectonics
a large section of Earth's oceanic or continental crust and rigid upper mantle that moves around on the athenosphere Plate
Large pieces of earth's crust plates  
Theory based on evidence that plates are moving slowly and constantly.   Theory of Plate Tectonics  
Supercontinent   Pangea  
Cracks between the plates   plate boundaries  
force that acts on rock to change its shape or volume   stress  
stress that pushes a mass of rock in two opposite directions   shearing  
stress that squeezes rock until it folds or breaks   compression  
stress force that pulls on the crust, stretching rock to become thinner tension
shaking and trembling that results from the movement of rock beneath Earth's surface   earthquake  
break in the Earth's crust where slabs of crust pass by each other   fault  
Shearing creates this type of fault   slip-strike  
Compression produces this type of fault   reverse  
Tension forces in Earth's crust produce this type of fault   normal  
Half the fault that lies above the fault   hanging wall  
Half the fault that lies below the fault   footwall  
bends in the rock   folds  
large area of flat land elevated high above sea level   plateau  
point beneath surface where rock is under stress and breaks   focus  
point on surface directly above the focus   epicenter  
first waves (compressional similar to a slinky)   p waves  
secondary waves (move perpendicular to direction of movement)   s waves  
move slower, but produce severe ground movements (making the ground roll like a water wave) surface waves
Rates earthquakes according to intensity   Mercalli scale  
a rating of the size of seismic waves measured by a seismograph   Richter scale  
Scale used today by geologists   Moment Magnitude Scale  
the theory that continents can drift apart from one another and have done so in the past   continental drift  
the process by which new oceanic lithosphere is created at mid-ocean ridges as older materials are pulled away from the ridge   sea-floor spreading  
the theory that the Earth's lithosphere is divided into tectonic plates that move around on top of the asthenosphere   plate tectonics  
the boundary between two colliding tectonic plates   convergent boundary  
the region where an oceanic plate sinks down into the asthenosphere at a convergent boundary, usually between continental and oceanic plates subduction zone
the boundary between two tectonic plates that are moving away from each other   divergent boundary  
the boundary between two tectonic plates that are sliding past each other horizontally   transform boundary  
a break in the Earth's crust along which two blocks of the crust slide relative to one another   fault  
the bending of rock layers due to stress in the Earth's crust   folding  
the type of stress that occurs when an object is squeezed   compression  
the type of stress that occurs when forces act to stretch an object   tension  
the amount of force per unit area that is put on a given material   stress  
a layer of hot rock   mantle  
the part of the mantle that is made of soft rock that bends like plastic   asthenosphere  
a dense ball of solid metal   inner core  
the transfer of energy through empty space   radiation  
heat transfer within a fluid   convection currents  
the continents were once joined together in a single landmass   continental drift  
the name of the supercontinent that existed millions of years ago   Pangaea  
any trace of an ancient organism that has been preserved in rock   fossil  
are found in all of Earth's oceans   mid-ocean ridges  
technology used by scientists used in the mid-1900s to map the mid-ocean ridge   sonar  
the process by which the ocean floor sinks beneath a deep-ocean trench and back into the mantle   subduction  
the geological theory that states that pieces of Earth's lithosphere are in constant, slow motion   plate tectonics  
forms at a divergent plate boundary   rift valley  
molten material rises from the mantle and erupts along mid-ocean ridges   sea-floor spreading  
produced by a collision between two pieces of continental crust at a converging boundary   mountain range  
when you touch a hot pot or pan and energy moves from the pot to your hand   heat transfer  
a place where two plates slip past each other, moving in opposite directions   transform boundary  
Wegener's hypothesis taht all continents were once connected in a single large landmass that broke apart about 200 million years ago and drifted slowly to their current positions   Continental Drift  
large, ancient landmass that was composed of all the continents joined together   Pangea  
Hess's theory that new seafloor is formed when magma is forced upward toward the surface at a mid-ocean ridge   Seafloor Spreading  
theory that Earth's crust and upper mantle are broken into plates that float and move around on a plasticlike layer of the mantle   Plate Tectonics  
a large section of Earth's oceanic or continental crust and rigid upper mantle that moves around on the athenosphere   Plate  
plasticlike layer of Earth on which the lithospheric plates float and move around   Asthenosphere  
rigid layer of earth about 100 km thick made of the crust and a part of upper mantle   Lithosphere  
current in Earth's mantle that transfers heat in Earth's interior and is the driving force for plate tectonics   Convection Current  
vibrations produced when rocks break along a fault   Earthquake  
seismic wave that moves rock particles back and forth in the same direction that the wave travels   Primary Waves  
seismic wave that moves rock particles at right angles to the direction of the wave   Secondary Waves  
seismic wave that moves rock particles up and down in a backward rolling motion and side to side in a swaying motion   Surface waves  
point on earth's surface directly above an earthquake's focus   Epicenter  
instrument used to register earthquake waves and record the time that each arrived   seismograph  
opening in earth's surface that erupts sulfurous gases, ash, and lava, can form at earth's plate boundaries, where plates move apart or together, and at hot spots   volcano  
opening where magma is forced up and flows out onto earth's surface as lava forming a volcano   vent  
steep-walled depression around a volcano's vent   crater  
the result of an unusually hot area at the boundary between earth's mantle and core that forms volcanoes when melted rock si forced upward and breaks through the crust   hot spot  
broad, gently sloping volcano formed by quiet eruptions of basaltic lava   shield volcano  
steep-sided, loosely packed volcano formed when tephra falls to the ground   cinder cone volcano  
volcano built by atlernating explosive and quiet eruptions that produce layers of tephra and lava; found mostly where earth's plates come together and one plate sinks below the other   composite volcano  
bits of rock or solidified lava dropped from the air during an explosive volcanic eruption; ranges in size from volcanic ash to volcanic bombs and blocks   Tephra  
Created by: rrosset