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Science exam study 1

questions to work on

Alkali Metals • Group 1 • Highly reative metals
Alkali earth metals • Group 2 • Reactive metals
halogens • Group 17 (or 7) • Non-metals • One of the most reactive groups
Noble gases • Group 18 (or 8) • Most stable • Rarely reactive
hydrogen • The group of 1 • Placed on metals side due to similar properties but is a non metal
Stage 1 Interphase • The longest stage; during which a cell carries out its regular functions • DNA is in long thin strands Near the end DNA is duplicated and more organelles are formed
Phase 1 Prophase • DNA condenses into chromosomes, which consists 2 identical sister chromatids, held together by a centromere • The nuclear membrane breaks down • Spindle finders are visible
Stage 2 Mitosis Phase 1 Prophase Phase 2 Metaphase Phase 3 Anaphase Phase 4 Telophase
Phase 2 Metaphase • Chromosomes line up along the center of the cell • Spindle fibers are visible
Phase 3 Anaphase • The centromeres split, sister chromatids separate into daughter chromosomes and begin to move to opposite ends of the cell, being pulled to the spindle fibers
Phase 4 Telophase • Daughter chromosomes stretch out and become thinner- no longer visible • New nuclear membranes form
Stage 3 Cytokinesis • Final stage of cell division • Cytoplasm divides into 2 identical daughter cells
Tissue A collection of similar cells that perform a particular, but limited, function
Epithelial tissue Thin sheet of cells covering surfaces and lining organs
Muscle tissue Bundles of long cells (muscle fibers) that can shorten (contract)
Connective tissue Various types of cells & fibers held together by a matrix (solid/liquid/gel)
Nerve tissue Long thin cells w/ fine branches that can conduct electrical impulses
4 major types of tissue Epithelial tissue Muscle tissue Connective tissue Nerve tissue
Produces bile liver system: Digestive (accessory organ)
Carries oxygen to cells Red blood cells system: Circulatory
Relaxes and contracts to cause inhalation and exhalation Diaphragm: Musculoskeletal
Holds and churns food Stomach : Digestive
Fight infection White blood cells: Circulatory
Releases mucus that moistens the air Epithelial cells called cilia: Respiratory
Have very thin walls to allow diffusion of oxygen and carbon dioxide; are surrounded by capillaries Alveoli: Respiratory
Absorbs water from undigestible food Large intestine (colon): Digestive
Allows red blood cells to pass through single file Capillaries : Circulatory
Performs mechanical digestion Mouth: Digestive
Carry blood back to the heart Veins: Circulatory
Supported by C-rings of cartilage Trachea: Respiratory
Muscular tube that uses peristalsis Esophagus: Digestive
Carry blood away from the heart Arteries: Circulatory
Has acid to kill bacteria Stomach: Digestive
Have thick muscular walls to withstand pressure Arteries: Circulatory
Produces insulin Pancreas: Digestive
Tiny cells that help in clotting Platelets: Circulatory
Stores and secretes bile Gall bladder: Digestive
Most digestion occurs here Small intestine: Digestive
The Shoot System · Conducts photosynthesis and produces flowers for sexual reproduction · Three main parts: leaf, flower and stem
Dermal tissue system forms the outer surface
Vascular tissue system responsible for transportation of water & minerals through plant
Ground tissue system make up all other structures
photosynthesis equation carbon dioxide + water —> glucose + oxygen + water. chemical equation 6CO2 + 6H2O —> C6H12O6 + 6O2
how do plants guard against water loss Through the stomata/guard cells (close when water is low), and the cuticle (waxy to prevent water loss)
LAWS of reflection: • The angle of reflection (r) is always equal to the angle of incidence • All the light that reaches our eyes initially came from a light source • Light will always take the fastest route
speed of an object through a medium equation v=c/n
Index of refraction equation N=c/v or [n=sine ⦣I/sine ⦣R]
Created by: MooshroomsRCool