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Nerve IV Glossopharyngeal
Nerve X Vagus
Nerve XI spinal accessory
Nerve XII hypoglossal
Nerve VIII vestibulocochlear
Nerve VII facial
Nerve VI Abducens
Nerve V Trigeminal
Nerve IV Trochlear
Nerve III oculomotor
Nerve II Optic
Nerve I Olfactory
QC test for low contrast spatial resolution Circular image. Should be able to visualize 10 spokes
QC test for geometric accuracy ( Z) Rectangular image showing triangles and rectangles
QC test for geometric accuracy (XY) Circular image with the graph in the center
The sagittal dural sinuses drain into the Internal jugular vein
A small FOV for a wrist exam would achieve High spatial resolution
Bright signal in the prostate would indicate Restricted diffusion
The prostate is posterior and inferior to the Bladder
Hemosiderin Appears_______on T2 images Hypointense
The two best planes for TOF of the subclavian artery‘s are Axial and sagittal
Gradient echo fast breath hold dynamic contrast enhanced imaging of the abdomen utilize Spoiling
Steady state imaging is When there is leftover transverse magnetization (what occurs if the TR is less than T2/T2*)
_______ contrast is dependent on impairment of molecular mobility, sensitivity to Brownian motion, and direction of water diffusion DWI
To compensate for FID Increase NEX enable flow compensation
Tissues with a long T2 Time are bright on T2 images
FDA approved oral contrast agent makes the bowel appear T1 and T2 hypointense
DWI susceptibility in or around strong air tissue interfaces can be decreased by Increasing the parallel imaging factor
______Is caused by interface of aliased signals at different phases Moire
Parallel imaging artifacts can be compensated for by Decreasing the parallel imaging factor Increasing FOV
Acquiring half of the data in the frequency direction Partial or fractional echo
Using gradient moment nulling Increases the minimum TE
Tissues with short T1 times are bright on T1 images
_______Has a long T1 time and a short T2 time Fat
______Has a long T1 time and a long T2 time Water
High amplitude signal is found in The Center of K space
Increasing the echo train length Increases chances of blur
Increasing the number of excitations by 2 Increases SNR by the square root of two
Acquiring half of data in the phase direction Half forurier or zero fill
Active shielding Superconducting windings in the MRI scanner ( reduce fringe Field)
Gradient slew rate The rate of ascent or descent from zero to maximum
Echo planer imaging sequences Are more at risk for TVMF effects
Transmit gain Evaluate accuracy of flip angles
On a 1 T, the frequency difference between fat and water is 147 HZ
The common iliac’s join to form the Inferior vena cava
Pre-saturation bands for TOFMRA of the inferior vena cava would be placed Superior
The vertebral arteries originate from the Subclavian artery’s
Bloch Discovered magnetic momentum
The first image of the human thorax was in the year 1977 (By the Damadian and team)
Discovered to DNMR, Fourier transform, and phase and frequency gradients Ernst
fMRI was available in the year 1991
The Fourier equation Is for heat transfer
Discovered how fields are Altered by each other with charges or currents Maxwell
Developed the first rotating magnetic field Tesla
#Of slices X slice thickness X slice gap = Anatomic coverage equation
Pixel size equation for phase and frequency matrix multiplied = Pixel area (answer in MM squared)
FOV/phase & FOV/frequency = Pixel size (answer in A x B format)
When imaging a patient with metal hardware Use thin slices, add NEX, small pixels for large matrix, no parallel imaging, wide rBW (decreases chemical shift), use STIR vs fat sat, use fast spin echo over gradient echo
Coil location in magnet from closest to patient to furthest from patient Radio frequency coils, gradient coils, shim coils, main magnet
Doubling the magnetic field strength Doubles the SNR
Pneumonic for cranial nerves Oh, oh, oh to take a family vacation. Go Vegas south hardees
Administering gadolinium Increases T1 weighting Increases SNR
Tissues with a_____are bright on T1 and tissues with a______are bright on T2 Short; long
Gadolinium only affects______protons Water
60,000 / HR minus delay and trigger window Available imaging time
60,000/HR Effective TR
TR x Phase matrix x NEX x #of slices = 3-D gradient echo scan time
TR x phase matrix x NEX / ETL = Fast spin echo scan time
TR x phase matrix x NEX = Spin echo scan time
Calculate pixel area and x by slice thickness Voxel volume (answer in MM cubed)
Increasing the TE Decreases SNR increases T2 weighting Increases susceptibility/distortion
Large FOV Decreases spatial resolution, increases SNR, no affect on scan time
Small FOV Decreases SNR, increases spatial resolution, no effect on skin time
High NEX value Increases spatial resolution, increases scan time, increases SNR
Low NEX value Decreases spatial resolution decreases scan time decreases SNR, increases motion artifact
Increasing flip angle Increases T1 weighting
Decreasing phase encodings Decreases scan time, decreases spatial resolution, increases SNR
Artifacts that occur in the frequency direction Chemical shift, zipper
Artifacts that occur in the phase direction Motion, ghosting, zipper, parallel imaging, alaising
Artifacts in the slice selection direction Chemical shift, partial voluming
Increasing parallel imaging factor Decreases scam time, decreases chemical shift artifact, increases sharpness, decreases SNR
Decreasing receiver bandwidth by 2 Increases SNR by the square root of two
#Of shots and fast spin echo # phase and coatings/ETL
Level two personnel Those with extensive MR training
Level one personnel Those with limited in MR training
Best plane for the ovaries is____and to the best plane for the uterus is_____ Coronel; sagittal
Edema is bright on T2 images because it has a Long T2 time
Edema is dark on T1 images because it has Long T1 time
Removal of signal from vessels Spatial pre-saturation
Can increase the strength of the magnet by increasing the turns of wire in a Superconducting magnet
Uses solenoid Surface coils Permanent magnet with a vertical field
Narrow bandwidth Increases SNR, increases spatial resolution, increases scan time, increases chemical shift
Wide bandwidth Decreases SNR, decreases special resolution, decreases scan time, decreases chemical shift, decreases TE, increases sharpness
Transmit bandwidth can affect Slice thickness, spatial resolution, SNR
Receiver bandwidth can affect SNR and chemical shift
Collecting low frequency/ high amplitude signal at the start of the scan Elliptic centric K space filling
During dynamic contrast enhanced imaging for vasculature, Cay spaces filled_______to ensure well visualized contrast Centrically
TOF MRA Uses T1 gradient echoes with TR and flip angle selections to suppress signal from stationary tissue, visualizing flowing blood by flow enhancement
PC MRA Uses T2 gradient echo with perimeter selections that suppress stationary tissues and rely on velocity induced phase shift
Increasing the flip angle by 2 Increases RF absorption by four
Decreasing the field of view by two Decreases voxel volume by four
Thin slices Decrease SNR, increase spatial resolution
Thick slices Increase SNR, decreased spatial resolution
Thin sliced gaps Increase spatial resolution and SNR
Thick sliced gaps Decrease special resolution and SNR
Decreasing the number of slices in volume imaging Decreases SNR and decrease scan time
Small matrix Decreased spatial resolution, increase SNR, decreased scan time
Large matrix Increase spatial resolution, decrease SNR, increase scan time
Hi TR values Increase Scan time, increase special resolution, increased number of slices, increase SNR, decrease T1 weighting
Low TR values Decrease scan time, decrease spatial resolution, Decrease SNR, decrease the number of slices, increase T1 weighting
Active shimming Adjustment of current within the shim coils for the purpose of achieving uniform fat suppression
Transverse magnetization XY component at right angles to the main magnetic field
Net magnetization vector Sum of the magnetization from a spin system
Created by: hsiegrisr