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Patho-Urinary System

Urinary System Disorders

Nephron Unit that filters blood
Glomerulus Bed of capillaries that supply blood for filtration by a nephron
What is filtered in the glomerulus? Fluids and solutes
What are juxtoglomerular cells? Cells that secrete renin
Glomerular Filtration Rate Rate at which fluid is filtered in the glomerulous
Decreased GFR triggers __________ secretion. Renin
Incontinence Loss of voluntary control of urination
Micturation Reflex Involuntary contraction of the bladder muscles, voluntary relaxation of the bladder sphincter
Retention Inability to urinate
Causes of incontinence Stress on the bladder sphincter from increased intra-abdominal pressure, incompetent bladder sphincter, neurological problems causing loss of voluntary control of micturation reflex
Large amounts of protein, bacteria, pus, or blood cells in the urine may give it a __________ appearance. Cloudy
Highly concentrated urine, heaturia, or excessive bilirubin may cause urine to appear ______. Dark
Hematuria Blood in the urine
What may unusual odors of urine be an indicator of? Infection
Infection, inflammation, increased glomerular permeability, or hemorrhage may be indicated by blood in the urine, which is known as ____________. Hematuria
Proteinuria Protein in the urine
Bacteriuria Bacteria in the urine
Pyuria Pus in the urine
Casts Solid masses that form in the tubules
Specific gravity Measure of the ability to concentrate urine
Glucosuria Glucose in the urine which results when the glucose levels in the filtrate are too high to get fully reabsorbed
Dialysis (Artificial kidney) Mechanical filtration of the blood used when the kidneys are unable to filter the blood on their own.
Cystitis Urinary tract infection/inflammation of the bladder
Urethritis Inflammation of the urethra
Pyelonephritis Inflammation of the kidneys
What type of bacteria most commonly cause urinary tract infections? Fecal bacteria (e.coli)
Predisposing factors for UTI's Pregnancy, scar tissue, and kidney stones
Manifestations associated with UTI's Pain in the lower abdomen, back pain with pyelonephritis, painful urination, increased urgency and frequency of urination, nocturia, cloudy urine
Nocturia Urinating at night
Glomerulonephritis Inflammation of the glomeruli
Acute poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis Secondary disorder to Streptococcal infections where antibodies to streptococcus antigens ASO and ASK form immune complexes that are deposited on capillary walls causing complement activation
Blood Urea Nitrogen (BUN) Blood test for kidney function
Urea Breakdown product of proteins excreted in urine
Oliguria Decreased urine output
Urolithiasis Kidney stones that develop when filtrate is highly concentrated or there are high amounts of insoluble salts
Predisposing factors for Urolithiasis Immobility, hypercalcemia, dehydration, hyperuricemia, infection, high BMI, highly acidic or alkaline urine
Hypercalcemia High calcium in the blood
Hyperuricemia High blood uric acid
Complications of Urolithiasis Urine flow obstruction and hyronephrosis
Manifestations of Bladder Cancer Hematuria, increased urination frequency, pain in lower back, abdomen, and/or painful urination
Risk factors for Bladder Cancer Smoking, high exposure to chemicals used in making some dyes, rubber, or leather, recurrent UTI's, previous chemotherapy or pelvic radiation, family history, gender, increasing age, schistosomiasis
Wilms' Tumor Most common childhood tumor in the US, located in the kidney
Defects in the tumor supressor genes WT1 and WT2 are associated with what congenital kidney disease? Wilms' tumor
Adult polycystic kidney Cyst formation on the kidney that leads to chronic renal failure due to necrosis and lack of normal function
Cysts Fluid filled sacs in a tissue
Renal failure The inability of both kidneys to function sufficiently for the body's needs
Anuria No urine output
In acute renal failure, GFR is ________, resulting in oliguria or anuria. Reduced
What are prerenal causes of acute renal failure? Conditions that cause decreased blood flow to the kidney due to things such as shock, myocardial infarction causing heart failure, congestive heart failure
Decreased blood output from the heart = Decreased bloodflow to kidneys
What are renal causes of acute renal failure? Conditions that directly damage the kidneys and disrupt function such as bilateral glomerulonephritis or pyelonephritis and nephrotixin exposure
Nephrotoxin Substances that are toxic to the nephrons
What are postrenal causes of acute renal failure? Conditions that block passage of urine out of the body such as kidney stones in both ureters or bladder obstruction due to calculi or tumors.
Causes of Chronic Renal Failure Chronic kidney disease, hypertension, diabetes, chronic exposure to nephrotoxins, renal artery stenosis
Nephrosclerosis Degenerative changes to renal blood vessels
Uremia End-stage kidney failure
During chronic renal failure polyuria and low specific gravity are seen in _____ stages and oliguria is seen in ______ stage. Early, late
Manifestations and complications of End-stage Renal Failure Oliguria, increased blood volume, nerve damage, reduced immune system function, decreased libido, impotence, or menstrual irregularities, anemia due to decreased erythropoietine production, bone demineralization
Hypocalcemia Low levels of calcium in the blood
Erythropoietin Hormone made by the kidneys that stimulates or promotes red blood cell formation
Azotemia Nitrogen wastes in the blood