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Micro #1

QuestionAnswer
Name the three domains of Microbiology Eukarya, Bacteria, Archaea
T/F: All three domains of Microbiology contain microbes True
T/R: There are four domains of Microbiology False- three domains and then Viruses
Why aren't Viruses a domain in Microbiology? Viruses contain microbes, but they are not alive/are not organisms, therefore they can not be a domain
Dr. Carl Woese Distingquished Archaea from bacteria by studying rRNA
Bacteria (s. ?) Bacterium
Bacteria have what in their cell walls? Petidoglycan
Peptidoglycan a substance forming the cell walls of many bacteria, consisting of glycosaminoglycan chains interlinked with short peptides.
Human Microbiome microbes colonize humans shortly after birth; they contribute to the development of our body's immune system; microbes that inhabit the large intestine help the body digest food and produce vitamins
Natural birth transfers bacteria to babies
What can taking antibiotics lead to? Yeast infection in women
Archaea (s. ?) Archaeon
T/F: Archaea do not have peptidoglycan in their cell wall True
Where do Archaea live? Extreme environments
Kingdom Protista Unicellular but larger than bacteria and archaea (part of the Domain Eukarya)
Kingdom Protista is divided into what four categories? 1. Algea 2. Protozoa 3. Slime Molds 4. Water Molds
Algae means what? Photosynthesis - together with cyanobacteria, they produce 75% of the oxygen and are the foundation of aquatic food chains
Protozoa means what? Animal-like protista that are usually motile
Slime mold means what? Protists that behave like protozoa in one stage of their life cycle but like fungi in another
Water mold means what? Protists that grow on the surface of fresh water or moist soil
Famous example of water molds? Ireland Potato Famine
Domain Eukarya Kingdom Fungi
Domain Eukarya Industry Bread, cheese, beer, antibiotics, enzymes
Domain Eukarya - Animal Protista Range from unicellula rfrom (yeast) to mold and mushrooms
Dimorphic Candida albicans - yeast form to hyhae form
Candida albicans Travels as yeast then grows hyphae to perforate organs
Mycellium Consisting of a mass of branching, thread-like hyphae
Kingdom Fungi: two categories Single cell (yeast form) vs. multicell (filamentous fungi- hyphae)
Filamentous fungi: two categories Phylum basidiomycota vs. Phylum Ascomycota
Phylum basidiomycota Spores produced externally
Phylum Ascomycota Spores produced internally
Viruses Order: life is characterized by highly ordered structures Evolution/Reproduction are only done in a host
Subviral Agent of viruses Viroids, Satellites, Prions
Robert Hook time phrame 1635-1703
Robert Hook discovery First drawing of microorganism (cork cells)
Lois Pastuer Discovered that fermentation was a process developed by microorganism - fermentation was failing bc the yeast normally responsible for alcohol formation was replaced by bacteria that produced acid rather than ethanol
Pasteurization Mild heat: <100 C
Sterilization High heat: 121 C
Joseph Lister dates 1827-1912
Joseph Lister discovery Developed a system of antiseptic surgery designed to present microorganisms from entering wounds
Germ Theory date 1850
Antibiotics date/origin 1920/fungi
Fermentation No Oxygen present
Respiration Oxygen present
Robert Koch dates 1843-1910
Robert Koch discovery Worked with Bacillus anthracis and anthrax - reported that tuberculosis was caused by the rod-shaped bacterium Mycobacterium tuberculosis
Koch's Postulates 1&2 1. The microorganism must be present in every case of the disease but absent from healthy organism 2. The suspected microorganism must be isolated and grown in a pure culture
Koch's Postulates 3&4 3. The same disease must result when the isolated microorganism is inoculated into a healthy host 4. The same microorganism must be isolated again from the new diseased host
Deine Koch's Postulates Criteria for proving the casual relationship between a microorganism and a specific disease
Problems with Koch's Postulates 1. Cannot be isolated in pure culture 2. Cannot be cultured 3. Deadly diseases 4. More than one microorganism is causing the disease
Mycology Study of fungi
Public Health microbiolgy CDC
Fruit grow what? Fungi
Veggies grow what? Bacteria
Plasma Membrane Selectively permeable barrier, mechanical boundary of cell, nutrient and waste transport, location of many metabolic processes (respiration, photosynthesis), detection of environmental cue for chemotaxis
Gas vacuole An inclusion that provides buoyancy for floating in aquatic environments
Inclusions Storage of carbon, phosphate, and other substances
Nucleoid Localization of genetic material (DNA)
Periplasmic space In typical Gram-negative bacteria, contains hydrolytic enzymes and binding proteins for nutrient processing and uptake; in typical Gram-positive bacteria, may be smaller or absent
Cell wall Protection from osmotic stress, helps maintain cell shape Negatively charged!!
Capsules and slime layers Resistance to phagocytosis, adherence to surfaces
Fimbriae and pili Attachment to surfaces, bacterial conjugation and transformation, twitching and gliding motility
Flagella Swimming and swarming motility
Endopsore Survival under harsh environmental conditions
Archaea's common features with Eukarya Genes encoding protein: replication, transcription, translation
Archaea's common features with Bacteria Genes for metabolism
Archaea's unique features Unique rRNA gene structure; capable of methanogenesis
Common shapes of Archaea Cocci and rods
What is the difference between Bacterial vs. Archaeal cells Cell wall constituents
What is in the Bacterial wall that is not in Archaeal wall? Peptidoglycan
Smollpox details Human carriers -young children and older people affected -mid-1700s
Edward Jenner dates 1749-1823
Edward Jenner discovery Credited with first small pox vaccine -Father of Immunolgy
Edward Jenner's discovery process 1. noticed certain female patients were not contracting/dying of small pox 2. all patients were cow maids who contracted cow pox 3. jenner infected the cow maids but none got the disease 4. mass eradication of the disease
Three types of microscopes Dissecting - Fungi Compound - Bacteria Electron - Viruses
Virus contents Nucleic acid (DNA or RNA), Capsid, Envelope
Virus envelope is made of... Lipids (membrane)
Virus capsid is made of... Proteins
Virus nucleic acid is made of... DNA or RNA
An example of an enveloped virus HIV
An example of a naked (nonenveloped) virus Polio
Two types of Virus Classification 1. International Committee of Taxonomy of Viruses 2. Baltimore Classification
Difference between virus clasifications ICTV- based on genetic analysis BC - based on 1) nucleic acid, 2) strandedness, 3) method of replication
Expounded terms of Baltimore Classification of Viruses 1) Nucleic acid (DNA or RNA) 2) Strandedness (single-stranded or double stranded nucleic acid) 3) method of replication (+ vs - stranded nucleic acid)
Three shapes of Capsids Helical, icosahedral, complex
Helical Capsids shaped like hollow tubes with protein walls
Icosahedral Capsids a regular polyhedron with 20 equilateral faces and 12 vertices - always rigid
Capsids of Complex Symmetry do not fit the category of having helical or icosahedral capsids -head resembles icosahedral, tail is helical
Example of complex capsid symetry Phages
Name 1st step of viral life cycle multiplication Attachment to host cell
Name 2nd step of viral life cycle multiplication Entry and uncoating of genome
Name 3rd step of viral life cycle multiplication Synthesis
Name 4th step of viral life cycle multiplication Assembly
Name 5th and final step of viral life cycle multiplication Release
Created by: Briawna