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Genetics

DNA RNA + Crosses

QuestionAnswer
def of genetics the study of how traits are inherited
def of heredity the passing on of traits from parents to offspring by means of genes
def of variation the differences between members of the same species
2 types of variation inherited and acquired
def of species a group of organisms capable of interbreeding and producing fertile offspring
def of gene a section of DNA located on a chromosome
what is a chromosome composed of protein and DNA
2 types of DNA coding and non coding
what is non coding DNA sugar and phosphate
the 4 bases of coding DNA Adenine, thymine, guanine, cytosine
what are the 2 bases groups divided into Purines (A&G) Pyrimidines (T&C)
what is a nucleotide units of DNA made up of 3 parts
what are the 3 parts of a nucleotide phosphate, sugar and a base
what is a complementary base pair 2 bases joined by a hydrogen bond
what is a genetic code a sequence of triplets that code for the formation of protein
what is a triplet code 3 bases in a sequence in a DNA strand that codes for a particular amino acid
what are the 3 types of codons initiation, elongation, termination
what is RNA made up of a single strand of nucleotides
what are the types of RNA mRNA, rRNA, tRNA
differences between RNA & DNA RNA is single stranded, located in the nucleus and cytoplasm, its base is uracil and sugar is ribose
when does DNA replication happen during interphase of cell cycle
what is DNA polymerase joins nucleotides together to make DNA
what is transcription the transfer of the genetic code from a DNA molecule to an mRNA molecule in the nucleus
what happens during transcription DNA uncoils & unzips, the base sequence in one strand is copied into mRNA
what happens once transcription is complete mRNA molecule is released into the cytoplasm
what is RNA processing the process by which the information from DNA is transferred to RNA
function of mRNA carries the genetic code for a specific protein
function of tRNA picks up the appropriate amino acids floating in the cytoplasm and transports them to the mRNA at the ribosomes
function of rRNA helps to bind mRNA and tRNA
what is translation using the genetic code from mRNA to synthesise proteins in the cytoplasm
what are the end products of protein synthesis a primary structure of a protein
what are alleles alternative forms of a gene
dominant alleles homozygous - 2 alleles are the same
recessive alleles homozygous recessive
heterozygous the 2 alleles are different
what is genotype genetic make up/appearance
what is phenotype physical appearance/make-up
what is a punnett square a square used to show the possible combinations of gamates
what are Gregor's 2 laws law of segregation and law of independent assortment
what is the law of segregation alleles separate from each other at gamete formation so that each only one factor of a pair of alleles enter a gamete
what is the law of independent assortment members of one pair of factors separate independently of another pair during gamete formation formation and can combine with either member of another pair
Created by: amykavanaghh