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Bio 160

Chapter 6 (Test 4)

Photosynthesis The energy of sunlight is used to rearrange the atoms of CO2, and H2O, producing organic molecules and releasing O2.
Cellular Respiration O2 is consumed as organic molecules are broken down to CO2 and H2O, and the cell captures the energy released as ATP.
Where does photosynthesis take place? Some prokaryotes and in the chloroplasts of plants and algae.
Where does cellular respiration take place? Many prokaryotes and in the mitochondria of almost all eukaryotes - in the cells of plants, animals, fungi, and protists.
Respiration Exchange of gases. An organism obtains O2 from its environment and released CO2 as a waste product.
Aerobic Respiration is the aerobic (oxygen-requiring) harvesting of energy from food molecules by the cell.
Cellular Respiration Formula C6H12O6 +6 O2 ----> 6CO2 + 6H2O + ATP + heat (Simplified Glucose + O2 ---> CO2 + H2O + ATP)
Exergonic Energy Releasing
32 ATP molecules How much energy cellular respiration can produce for each glucose molecule. The rest is released as heat.
Redox Reactions (oxidation-reduction reaction) Transfer of electrons from one molecule to another. During cellular respiration, electrons are transferred from glucose or other organic fuels to oxygen, releasing energy.
Oxidation The loss of electrons from one substance. (loss of hydrogen atoms)
Reduction The gain of electrons from one substance. (Gain of hydrogen atoms)
Explanation of Redox Reactions Figure 6.5 depicts Glucose (C6H12O6) losed hydrogen atoms (with their electrons) as it becomes oxidized to CO2; simultaneously, O2 gains hydrogen atoms (and electrons) as it becomes reduced.
NAD+ Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide is an important enzyme in the process of oxidizing glucose. It shuttles electrons in redox reactions.
NADH What NAD+ becomes when it is reduced (gains electrons).
Oxidation of an organic fuel An enzyme called dehydrogenase strips two Hydrogen atoms from the organic fuel molecule and transfers two electrons and one proton to its coenzyme NAD+, reducing it to NADH. The other proton is released into the surrounding solution.
Carrier molecules Normally proteins, carry the electrons that the NADH dropped off to be transformed into H2O
Electron Transport Chain Are formed by carrier molecules and through a series of redox reactions, electrons are passed from carrier to carrier, releasing energy that can be used to make up ATP.
Cytosol Where the steps for cellular respiration occur for in prokaryotic cells that use aerobic respiration. The electron transport chain is built into the plasma membrane.
Stages of Cellular Respiration 1) Glycolysis - occurs in cytosol 2) Pyruvate Oxidation and the Citric Acid Cycle - Takes place in mitochondria. 3) Oxidation Phosphorylation - occurs in inner mitochondria membrane.
Glycolysis "Splitting of Sugars" Occurs in the cytosol. It begins the cellular respiration by breaking down glucose into two molecules of a three carbon called pyruvate.
Pyruvate Oxidation Stage 2a - Takes place in the mitochondria. Pyruvate is oxidized to a two carbon compound.
Citric Acid Cycle Stage 2b - Takes place in the mitochondria and completes the break down of glucose to carbon dioxide. The CO2 we exhale is formed in the mitochondria of your cells during this stage of respiration.
Oxidative Phosphorylation This is where most of the ATP is produced. Involves electron transport and chemiosmosis. NADH and a related electron carrier, FADH2, shuttle electrons to electron transport chains embedded in the inner mitochondrial membrane.
How Oxidative Phosphorylation works It uses the energy released by redox reactions in the electron transport chain to make ATP. The electrons are finally passed to oxygen, which becomes reduced to H2O.
What couples the electron transport chain to ATP synthesis? As electrons are passed down the energy staircase, the electron transport chain also pumps H+ across the inner mitochondrial membrane into a narrow intermembrane space.
Chemiosmosis It is an energy coupling mechanism that uses the energy of H+ gradients across membranes to drive cellular work, such as the phosphorylation of ADP; powers most ATP synthesis in cells.
Figure 6.7A Overview of glycolosis Start with 1 molecule of glucose(6 carbons), ends with 2 molecules of pyruvate, which have three carbons each. The straight arrow represents 9 chemical steps, each catalyzed by its own enzyme. 2 NAD+ come in and 2 NADH go out which creates 2 ATP.
Phosphorylation Part of glycolsis
Substrate-Level Phosphorylation In this process, an enzyme transfers a phosphate group (P) from a substrate molecule to ADP, forming ATP immediately. Also seen in the citric acid cycle. This is when the 2 ATPS are formed.
Glycolysis and Oxidation of glucose oxidation of glucose to pyruvate during glycolosis can use the energy in ATP immediately, but for it to use the energy in NADH, electrons from NADH must pass down an electron transport chain located in the inner mitochondrial.
Look at figure 6.7C pg 99 … Memorize
Intermediates Compounds that form between an initial reactant and a final product.
Steps 1-4 of Glycolysis 1st main step. Energy Investment Stage, actually consume energy. 2 molecules of ATP energize a glucose molecule which then splits into two sugars.
Steps 5-9 of Glycolysis 2nd main step, Energy Payoff stage, yields energy for the cell. This phase occurs after glucose has been split into two three-carbon molecules.
Steps 5-9 Process run down
Created by: ag_parsons
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