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Genetics 2 Vocab

TermDefinition
complimentary either of the nucleotide bases linked by a hydrogen bond on opposite strands of DNA or double-stranded RNA
punctuation theory in evolutionary biology which proposes that once species appear in the fossil record the population will become stable
protein synthesis process of creating protein molecules
transcription making a copy of genetic information stored in a DNA strand into a complementary strand of RNA
translation a step in protein biosynthesis wherein the genetic code carried by mRNA is decoded to produce the specific sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide chain
codon a sequence of three DNA or RNA nucleotides that corresponds with a specific amino acid
anticodon sequence of three adjacent nucleotides located on one end of transfer RNA
splice process by which introns are removed from hnRNA to produce mature messenger RNA that contains only exons
exons part of a gene that will encode a part of the final mature RNA produced by that gene after introns have been removed by RNA splicing
polypeptide chains of amino acids
restrictive enzyme a protein produced by bacteria that cleaves DNA at specific sites along the molecule
karyotyping the number and appearance of chromosomes in the nucleus of an eukaryotic cell
tranduction the process by which foreign DNA is introduced into a cell by a virus or viral vector
cloning the process of producing similar populations of genetically identical individuals that occurs in nature when organisms such as bacteria, insects or plants reproduce asexually
genetic engineering the direct manipulation of an organisms genes using biotechnology
gene mutation a permanent alteration in the DNA sequence that makes up a gene, such that the sequence differs from what is found in most people
chromosomal mutation A mutation involving a long segment of DNA
pedigree chart An ancestral line or chart depicting the lineage or descent of an individual
amniocentesis a procedure used to diagnose fetal defects in the early second trimester of pregnancy.
recombinant DNA genetically-engineered DNA molecule formed by splicing fragments of DNA from a different source or from another part of the same source, and then introduced into the recipient cell.
Created by: 1002281