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Genetics

TermDefinition
Complimentary In molecular biology, complementarity is a property (something that it can do) of nucleic acids such as DNA and RNA.
Punctuation Rapid or sudden speciation, as posited by the theory of punctuated equilibrium.
Protein Synthesis Is a complex process that begins with adequate supplies of amino acids to charge the transfer RNA molecules that deliver them to the proteinsynthetic apparatus
Transcription The process of transcribing or making a copy of genetic information stored in a DNA strand into a complementary strand of RNA
Translation Is a step in protein biosynthesis wherein the genetic code carried by mRNA is decoded to produce the specific sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide chain
Codon Is a sequence of three DNA or RNA nucleotides that corresponds with a specific amino acid or stop signal during protein synthesis.
Anticodon A sequence of three adjacent nucleotides located on one end of transfer RNA
Splice The process by which introns are removed from hnRNA to produce mature messenger RNA that contains only exons.
Exons An exon is any part of a gene that will encode a part of the final mature RNA produced by that gene after introns have been removed by RNA splicing.
Polypeptide Chains of amino acids
Restrictive enzyme DNA-cutting enzymes found in bacteria (and harvested from them for use)
Karyotyping The number and visual appearance of the chromosomes in the cell nuclei of an organism or species.
Transduction Is the process by which foreign DNA is introduced into a cell by a virus or viral vector
Cloning Is the process of producing similar populations of genetically identical individuals
Genetic engineering The science of altering and cloning genes to produce a new trait in an organism or to make a biological substance, such as a protein or hormone.
Gene mutation Is a permanent alteration in the DNA sequence that makes up a gene.
Chromosomal mutation A mutation involving a long segment of DNA.
Pedigree chart Diagram that shows the occurrence and appearance or phenotypes of a particular gene or organism and its ancestors from one generation to the next
Amniocentesis A procedure used to diagnose fetal defects in the early second trimester of pregnancy.
Recombinant DNA Genetically-engineered DNA molecule formed by splicing fragments ofDNA from a different source or from another part of the same source, and then introduced into the recipient (host) cell.
Created by: 1007542
 

 



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