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_____ are populations that live and interact in the same place at the same time. communities
_____ communities are nested within _____ communities smaller; larger
3 specific groups of communities - cliff dwelling birds - microbial communities - plant communities
Niche All the biotic and abiotic resources a species needs to survive, remain healthy and reproduces
4 parts of a Niche - Light - Temperature - Moisture - Food
Fundamental vs realized niche -Fundamental: conditions under which a species can physiologically live if there are no other species present. -Realized: Within "F" but after accounting for species interactions.
Species Interactions Competition, Symbiosis, Predation
Two parts of Species Interactions - Intraspecific - Interspecific
Competitive Exclusion a species is prevented from occupying an area due to a competitive interaction with another
Outcomes of Competition between species 1. Competitive Exclusion 2. Niche Partitioning
Reducing Competition- Niche Partitioning - Temporal - Spatial- species use different microhabitats
Temporal nocturnal vs diurnal - predatory mammals - woodland flowers
Spatial - Wading birds - fish
Types of Community interactions: - predator/ prey - herbivore/ plant - symbiont/ host (mutualism, communalism, parasitism)
Community Structure - Diversity and Richness - Community Dominants - Ecosystem engineers - Keystone Species - Facilitators - Trophic Structure
Trophic Structure - Food chains - food webs
Diversity number of species and species evenness
Richness number of species
Community Dynamics - community dominants - ecosystem engineers - keystone species - facilitators
community dominant species with large number of individuals and large impact
ecosystem engineers change the function of a community
keystone species small in #, large in impact
succession change in community over time
two types of succession primary and secondary
ecosystem ecology study of the ecological significance of the flow of energy and matter
______ include the community and the physical environment ecosystems
community focus on species interactions
ecosystem focus is on functional aspects
Functional aspects include: - energy flow - nutrient cycling
Value of Ecosystems to humans provide "services" clean air/water, food, recreation, flood control, insect control
Functional aspects of ecosystem include - water retention - primary production - energy flow - nutrient cycling - resistance and resilience -influx/outflux/ cycling - functional groups/ guilds
Energy Flow linear, from sun to producer to consumer to decomposer
Stability and Diversity - Disturbance - Components of stability
Two components of stability - resistance - resilience
Nutrient Cycling - from nutrient pools - nutrients passed from organisms to organism - nutrients return to nutrient pool - nutrients are recycled - limiting nutrients often determine ecosystem dynamics
nutrient spiraling - organic detritus moves down stream as it decomposes - linkage between ecosystems
Limitations structure ecosystems - Nutrient Limited Ecosystems - Water Limited Ecosystems - Light Limited Ecosystems
Biogeochemical Cycles - Gaseous carbon, oxygen, sulfur, and nitrogen - less mobile elements such as P, K, and Ca
In studying cycling of water, carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus, ecologists focus on 4 factors: - each chemicals biological importance - forms in which each chemical is available or used by organisms - major reservoirs for each chemical (pools) - key processes driving movement (flux) of each chemical through its cycle
Effects of altered water cycle on ecosystems Glacier Melting: -influx of fresh water - rise in sea level - change of coastline - more inland lakes - less circulation
Effects of change in C cycle - plants grow faster - hotter, wetter climate - ocean acidification - change in phenology and migration
Created by: savepeople