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HW/ ch 12

Anatomy and Physiology = Bio 2020; CH 12

Structural Classification Multipolar neuron, bipolar neuron, unipolar neuron
Functional Classification Sensory neuron, motor neuron, interneuron neuron, afferent neuron, efferent neuron, association neuron
Multipolar neuron are the most common type of neuron. These neurons have many dendrites and a single axon that extends from the cell body.
Bipolar neuron have two processes that extend from the cell body-one dendrite and one axon. The location of these neurons is relatively limited in humans (e.g., the retina of the eye and the olfactory epithelium in the nose).
Unipolar have a single, short neuron process that emerges from the cell body and branches like a T.
Place the following structures in the order that an electrical impulse would travel beginning with the postsynaptic membrane. 1. Dendrites 2. Soma 3. Axon hillock 4. Internode 5. Node of Ranvier 6. Terminal arborization 7. Synaptic knobs
Dendrites The cellular extension involved with receiving presynaptic information
Soma The body of the neuron
Axon hillock The point of action potential creation positioned at the start of the axon
Internode Length of neuron under a Schwann cell
Node of Ranvier Areas of bare axons between Schwann cells
Terminal arborization Branching ends of the axon
Graded potentials can result from voltage across the plasma membrane. True
Graded potentials can result from mechanical stimulation or temperature changes. True
The potential change can vary from small to large depending on the stimulus strength or summation. True
The effects produced by one graded potential can be added onto the effects of another graded potential. True
Increased permeability of the membrane to sodium results in depolarization. True
A depolarizing graded potential can cause an action potential. True
Excitatory Neurotransmitter Actions Binds to a chemically gated sodium channel, Sodium moves down concentration gradient into the neuron, The inside of the neuron becomes more positive
Inhibitory Neurotransmitter Actions Binds to a chemically gated potassium channel, Binds to a chemically gated chloride channel, Potassium moves down its concentration gradient out of the neuron, Chloride moves down its concentration gradient into the neuron
Place the items for an EPSP in the correct order from beginning to end. Excitatory neurotransmitter released from presynaptic neuron> Neurotransmitter binds to chemically gated sodium channels>Sodium channels open>Sodium flows into neuron>Inside of neuron becomes more positive >This EPSP propagates toward axon hillock
Place the items in the correct order for an IPSP from beginning to end. An inhibitory neurotransmitter binds to chemically gated K+ channels>K+ channels open>K+ flows out of the neuron>The inside of the neuron becomes more negative>The IPSP propagates towards the axon hillock
Place each of the following labels in the proper position on the curve where each of the indicated items would occur. A: Potential across the membrane becomes less negative B: At threshold, voltage-gated Na+ channels open quickly;Threshold;-55mV C: Voltage-gated potassium channels open D: Hyper-polarization E: Resting membrane potential; -70mV
Glial cells Oligodendrocytes, Ependymal Cells, Microglia, Astrocytes, Neurolemmocytes, Satellite Cells
Oligodendrocytes Form the myelin sheath in the CNS
Ependymal Cells Function in the production and circulation of CSF
Microglia Macrophages of the CNS
Astrocytes Most abundant CNS glial cells; Involved with neurogenesis, scar formation, and BBB maintenance
Neurolemmocytes Form the myelin sheath in the PNS
Satellite Cells PNS cells that surround and insulate the somas
Place the components of a peripheral nerve in sequence from outside to inside. Epineurium>Nerve>Perineurium>Fascicles>Endoneurium>Neurolemmocytes>Axolemma
Structural Classification Based upon the CNS component nerve arises from; Would include spinal nerves
Functional Classification Based upon direction information is sent; Would include sensory nerves; Would include motor nerves; Would include mixed nerves
More Abundant in Cytosol Phosphate; Negatively charged proteins; Potassium
More Abundant in ISF Sodium; Chloride
Relative Refractory Period Occurs when voltage-gated sodium channels have returned to resting state; Ensure that the action potential moves down the axon in only one direction; Neuron is hyperpolarized
Absolute Refractive Period Occurs about 1 ms after an action potential; No amount of stimulus will initiate a second action potential; Voltage-gated sodium channels are opened then closed in the inactivated state
If neurotransmitter from Neuron A causes Neuron B to hyperpolarize, this is an example of an inhibitory postsynaptic potential
The most common type of neuron contains many dendrites and a single axon. Structurally, this is classified as a(n) ______________ neuron. multipolar
Scorpion agitoxin is a neurotoxin that blocks the activity of voltage-gated potassium channels. In the presence of agitoxin, which will occur during an action potential? The neuron wil remain depolarized and unable to repolarize.
Nerve growth factors that stimulate outgrowth of severed axons are secreted by Neurolemmocytes.
Which part of neuron contain calcium pumps and channels Synaptic bulbs.
The ___________ nervous system transmits information from receptors to the CNS, while the ___________ nervous system transmits information from the CNS to the rest of the body. Sensory; motor
A typical synapse in the CNS consists of a presynaptic neuron and a postsynaptic neuron, separated by a narrow space called the Synaptic cleft
Myelin sheaths mainly consist of which part of the glial cells that form them? Plasma membranes
What type of cells produce the myelin sheath in the central nervous system (CNS)? Oligodendrocytes
When threshold is reached, depolarization occurs with the same amplitude of potential change. This is known as the All-or-None principle
The _______ is a period of time when a membrane cannot respond to another stimulus (no matter how strong). Absolute refractory period
What is the correct order for the events of neurotransmitter release from the synaptic terminal? 1 Extracellular Ca2+ enters terminal and binds to sensor protein in the cytoplasm 2 Exocytosis of neurotransmitter into synaptic cleft 3, 5, 1, 4, 2
3 Action potential reaches axon terminal 4Ca2+-protein complex stimulates fusion of the docked synaptic vesicle with the plasma membrane 5 – Voltage-gated Ca2+ channels open
The fundamental physiological properties that enable nerve cells to communicate with other cells are the ability to respond to environmental changes;the ability to produce electrical signals that are quickly conducted to other cells at distant locations;the ability to secrete a chemical that will stimulate the next cell when an electrical signal reaches
reaches the end of an axon; *All of these choices are correct*
Pain receptors in the skin send signals to the CNS for processing. These pain receptors are an example of ____________ neurons. Afferent
Neurons that carry signals from the CNS to skeletal muscle for contraction would be classified as _____________ neurons. Efferent
The vagus nerve contains afferent and efferent neurons, therefore it is an example of a(n) __________ nerve. Mixed
If all the sodium leakage channels were removed from the cell membrane of a neuron, the membrane potential would be about -90 millivolts
When sodium enters the neuron via chemically gated sodium channels, the membrane will depolarize. Therefore, the membrane potential will become more Positive
On a graph of an action potential, the small depolarizations that lead to threshold are from excitatory postsynaptic potentials (EPSPs)
The inflow of sodium ions into the intracellular fluid causes depolarization of the neuron's inner cell membrane. True
EPSP Result: As a result The sodium channels open and sodium ions pour into the intracellular fluid.
An inhibitory post synaptic potential (IPSP) will make the membrane potential of a neuron's inner cell membrane more negative.
An excitatory post synaptic potential (EPSP) will make the membrane potential of a neuron's inner cell membrane more positive.
Depolarization of a cell membrane occurs because more sodium ions diffuse into the cell than potassium ions diffuse out of it.
Depolarization is initiated by a stimulus that makes the membrane potential More positive
The inside of the cell membrane becomes negative at the time of an action potential. False
A recently depolarized area of a cell membrane cannot generate an action potential because of the Absolute refractory period.
On a typical neuron, the axon is usually longer in length than the dendrites. True
The endoneurium wraps around groups of fasicles to form a nerve. False
In neurons, protein pumps allow substances to move passively down their concentration gradients False
Sodium has a higher concentration outside the cell than within. True
Greater current flow is possible with larger resistance and a lower voltage. False. According to Ohm's Law, a greater current flow is possible with decreasing resistance and a higher voltage.
The leakage of potassium plays a more significant role in the resting membrane potential than the leakage of sodium. True
Postsynaptic neurons can generate both inhibitory and excitatory postsynaptic potentials simultaneously. True
Created by: svalde1907



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