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BIOLOGY III

Covers Organ systems, Evolution, Populations, Communities, and Ecosystems

TermDefinition
Evolution Genetic change in population over multiple generations
Population Individuals of the same species interacting/interbreeding in a shared environment
Community Group of interacting populations
Ecosystem Interactions between biotic and abiotic components
Natural selection is the mechanism Charles Darwin proposed for the evolution of new species. Explain what natural selection is and how it works. Individuals better able to obtain resources are more likely to survive & reproduce. "Survival of the fittest" Groups of organisms evolve when natural selection favors individuals with advantageous inherited characteristics.
What lines of evidence do we have that support evolution? Fossils, Traces of evolution in existing organisms, similarities and differences in DNA, Direct observations of genetic change in populations, continental drift.
What is artificial selection? Breeding animals & plants with specific desirable characteristics.
What are the different types of fossils Petrified, Molds, Trace, Carbon Films, Casts, Preserved remains
Explain why the evolution of photosynthetic prokaryotes was such an important event in the history of life on earth. The evolution of photosynthetic prokaryotes helped generate oxygen as a waste product, giving support to higher forms of life.
What was the Cambrian explosion? Dramatic increase in number & diversity of species during early to middle cambrian period. (530mya)
What is the difference between microevolution and macroevolution? Microevolution: Short term genetic changes in population (Changes in allele frequencies) Natural selection is often the most important mechanism of microevolution. Macroevolution: Large scale events-Appearance of a new species.
What are the mechanisms of microevolution? Mutation (Random) Gene Flow: (Not random) Genetic Drift: (Random) NAtural Selection: (Not Random)
What is the ultimate source of genetic variability in a population? Mutations.
What is gene flow? Does it increase or decrease genetic variability between populations? Moves Genes from 1 population to another. Be it Migration or Pollen Drift. (Increases variability in populations.)
What is a genetic bottleneck, how does it form Occurs when the rapid drop in a small population leads to a drastic decrease in genetic variation (Loss of Alleles)
What is the founder effect? ? How is it different to a genetic bottleneck? Founder effect: Small group of individuals establishes a small isolated population. Rare traits become common as Alleles are shared, not lost.
What is a Morphological Species Identifies species by physical appearance
What is a Biological Species Identifies species by 1 or more populations that can interbreed to produce fertile offspring. (Most common used definition of Species)
List 5 types of prezygotic barriers and what are they? Temporal Isolation=Different breeding times. Ecological Isolation=Different locations Behavioral Isolation=Different courtship displays/Behavior Mechanical Isolation=Physically unable to mate Gametic Isolation=Gametes cant fuse/Can't survive
What are postzygotic barriers? Prevents Zygotes from developing, Zygotic death in tract or infertile offspring IE: Mules
What is homeostasis? Process of maintaining a relatively constant internal state despite fluctuations in environment
What is Exponential Grows? What chart is used to represent it? Population increases by a constant proportion over constant time interval. Represented by a J Shaped curve.
What is Logistical Grows? What chart is used to represent it? No population can increase indefinitely. Populations reach and remain at a constant population size. Birth+Immigration=Death+Emigration. Represented by S Shaped Curve.
List the body’s organizational hierarchy. Cell--> Tissue--> Organ--> Organ System.
What is the carrying capacity?Explain what happens when a population exceeds the carrying capacity? Carrying Capacity is limit of resources. Going over carrying capacity can lead to habitat deterioration, lower carrying capacity of environment, & dramatic decrease in population size.
What is the difference between population size and population density? Population size= refers to total number of individuals in a population. Population density=Number of individuals per unit of area.
What is population density? Population density=Number of individuals per unit of area.
What is population size? Population size= refers to total number of individuals in a population.
What four factors effect population size? Birth rate (a), Death rate (b), Immigration (c), Emigration (e) a+c>b+d a+c<b+d
Which two factors are responsible for an increase in population size? Birth Rate & Immigration
What environmental factors can limit population growth? Food/Water, Habitat Availability, Disease, Predators, Competition, and Habitat Deterioration
What is the concept of population cycle? Use an example to help explain. A consumer exerts such a significant amount of impact on a prey species that the population sizes of the 2 species change together in a tightly linked cycle. IE: Fox eating rabbits. Rabbit decrease = Fox decrease.
What is Mutualism? (+,+) Animals work together, both gain improved fitness
What is Commensalism? (+,0) One species benefits, while the other is not affected.
What is Parasitism? (+,-) One species benefits at the other's expense.
What is a keystone species? Give an example. Keystone species that as a pivotal role in a community. Ie: Sea Otters diet of sea urchins helps keep kelp forests alive.
What is an invasive species? Nonnative, introduced by humans. Disrupts ecological communities.
What is a cell? Smallest structural/functional unit of organism
What is a tissue? Collection of cells performing a function
What is an organ? Collection of tissues performing a function
What is an organ system? Collection of Organs functioning together.
What does the Stomach do? Digests food, secretes enzymes and acids
What does the Liver do? Filters blood detoxifies chemicals and metabolizes drugs.
What does the Pancreas do? Regulates blood and glucose. Secretes Glucagon.
What does the Kidneys do? Extracts waste. Generates urine
What does the Heart do? Pumps blood through the body, supplies oxygen and nutrients
What does the Lungs do? Gaseous exchange, respiration
What does the Testes do? Produces Gametes
What are biotic and abiotic factors? Biotic = Living/Once living organisms in ecosystem. Abiotic = Non living/chemical and physical elements in Ecosystem
What is Abiotic? Abiotic = Non living/chemical and physical elements in Ecosystem
What is Biotic? Biotic = Living/Once living organisms in ecosystem.
Explain the transfer of energy through an ecosystem. Does all energy make it from one trophic level to the next? If not, why not? Energy transfer primarily goes through food webs. Only about 10% goes from 1 trophic level to the next. Could be - Not consumed, -Not taken up in body, -Lost as metabolic heat.
Is human population growth currently exponential or logistical? Logistical.
Created by: Minxies