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Aquatic Biomes

What are the two main groups of aquatic biomes? marine and freshwater
What do the marine biomes include? Shore, shallow seas, and open ocean which cover about 71% of Earth's surface.
How much salinity is in freshwater biomes? less than .05 percent.
What do freshwater biomes include? Freshwater biomes include ponds and lakes and flowing water, such as streams and rivers. Freshwater wetlands—swamps, bogs, temporary pools, and marshes—are also considered freshwater biomes.
True or False: organisms may not occupy more than one biome. False. Many aquatic biomes overlap, so organisms may occupy more than one biome.
What abiotic factors affect biomes? Salinity, pH, light, and temperature. All but the shallowest wetlands, streams, and ponds are affected by changes in abiotic factors with depth.
What type of light is more rapidly absorbed by water? Red light is absorbed more rapidly by water than blue light. Red light is used in photosynthesis, so the reduction in the quality and quantity of light severely impairs photosynthesis below a certain depth.
What are the two zones of the ocean? The photic zone, through which light penetrates, and the aphotic zone, where there is little or no light. Photosynthesis takes place only in the photic zone.
Why is water warmer by the surface than the bottom? Solar radiation is absorbed by the water in the photic zone, increasing its temperature. The temperature in the photic zone typically decreases with depth. Warm water is less dense than cold water.
What is thermocline? The change from warm to cold water.
Exchange of gases between water and air occurs where? Exchange of gases between water and air occurs in the upper layers. Phytoplankton produce oxygen as they carry out photosynthesis. As a result, the upper layer of water typically contains more dissolved oxygen than deeper waters.
What are the upper and lower layers, concerning nutrients. The upper layers are nutrient deficient, and the lower layers are nutrient rich.
Where is the benthic zone located? The bottom of a lake or an ocean. In deep water, this zone is cold and completely devoid of sunlight. It usually has lots of organic matter, which is a rich source of food for organisms.
Decomposition in the benthic zone may cause? Decomposition in this zone may decrease oxygen levels in the water and may also lower pH as the acidic products of decomposition are released.
What are the two categories of freshwater biomes? moving (Rivers and streams) and standing water (ponds, lakes, temporary pools, freshwater swamps, and freshwater wetlands)
True or False: Glaciers are important bodies of frozen fresh water that move very slowly. Glaciers may be considered freshwater biomes. True!
What are the three zones of moving water? Source, transition and floodplain zone
Source zones are __________________ in oxygen but ___________ in nutrients. They are commonly rich in oxygen but low in nutrients.
True or False: In the transition zone, the river contains more suspended matter and dissolved nutrients. True
How are zones determined in large lakes? The zones result from differences in light, temperature, oxygen, and nutrient availability.
Where is the littoral zone? The well-lit area close to shore, where rooted and floating plants grow
Where is the limnetic zone? Further from the shore, where the upper layers of water are illuminated by the sun and generally are rich in oxygen.
Where is the profundal zone located? Below the limnetic zone is dark water, called the profundal zone, where photosynthesis cannot take place. Oxygen concentration and temperatures are lower here, and organisms, including certain fish, have adapted to these conditions.
What does the benthic zone organisms rely on? Detritus from the above layers.
How does oxygen enter a lake? Oxygen enters the lake either directly from the air or through the photosynthetic activity of plants, algae, and phytoplankton. Wave action mixes lake water with the air and increases the levels of dissolved oxygen.
How is oxygen depleted? Decomposition of organic matter by fungi and bacteria removes oxygen through the process of respiration. The removal of oxygen from the water is called Biological Oxygen Demand or B.O.D.
What makes a lake oligotrophic? Lakes that are low in nutrients.
What makes a lake eutrophic? Lakes that have high levels of nutrients and high plant growth.
What makes a lake mesotrophic? They are mostly nuetral between high and low nutrients.
What are freshwater wetlands? Freshwater wetlands are areas of shallow water that support the growth of aquatic plants
What do most bogs have? low pH and low in available nutrients.
What are ephemeral pools? Ephemeral pools are small bodies of water that last only a few days or weeks. They are very important for the reproduction of many insects and amphibians.
Marines biomes have salinities above_______% <1%
T/F: The shore is where many organisms live. False! This area can be a harsh place for organisms to live. Twice a day, tides submerge and then expose much of the substrate. The organisms that live on the shore are exposed to major changes in salinity of seawater, as well as fresh water from rain.
On the shore, how are zones divided? Vertically.
Where is the neritic zone located? The shallow offshore areas, usually over a continental shelf. The water in this region of the ocean is well illuminated and typically rich in nutrients when compared to the open ocean.
Where is the pelagic zone? Beyond the continental shelf is open, often very deep, water. In the upper, lit part of this pelagic zone live phytoplankton that form the base of a complex food web.
Where is the abyssal zone? The deepest parts of the benthic zone are the abyssal zones. Here, animals must survive in one of the most extreme environments on Earth. Animals that live in the abyssal zone have adaptations for living in near or total darkness.
Where deep-sea hydrothermal vents are, what is the quality of oygen? The environment is oxygen deficient and is rich in sulfur and other compounds. The communities at these vents are supported by chemoautotrophs, bacteria and archaea that use inorganic chemicals to provide the energy they need to make carbohydrates.
Where are estuaries? Estuaries are the places where fresh water from rivers meets the ocean. They typically consist of the end of a river valley that has been flooded to create a broad inlet.
T/F: invasive species are not a problem in many aquatic biomes. False!!
What is eutrophication? a very rapid rise in the phytoplankton population due to added nitrogen and phosphorus from fertilized land or animal waste
I didn't include self assessment questions.
Created by: JustEmma
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