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Ch 40

anatomy biological form
physiology biological function
interstitial fluid the spaces between the cells are filled with fluid
tissues groups of cells with a similar appearance and a common function
organs different types of tissues are further organized into functional units
organ system groups of organs that work together , providing an additional level of organization and coordination
Main components of Digestive System - mouth - pharynx - espophagus - stomach - intestines - liver - pancreas - anus
Digestive System Function food processing (ingestion, digestion, absorption, elimination)
Main components of Circulatory System - heart - blood vessels - blood
Circulatory System Function Internal distribution of materials
Main components of Respiratory System Lungs, trachea, other breathing tubes
Respiratory System Function Gas Exchange(uptake of oxygen; disposal of carbon dioxide)
Main components of Immune and Lymphatic System - bone marrow - lymph nodes - thymus -spleen - lymph vessels
Immune and Lymphatic System Function Body Defense (fighting infections and vi-rally induced cancers)
Main components of Excretory System - kidneys -ureters -urinary bladder -urethra
Excretory System Function disposal of metabolic wastes; regulation of osmotic balance of blood
Main components of Endocrine System -Pituitary - thyroid - pancreas - adrenal - other hormone secreting glands
Endocrine System Function coordination of body activities (such as digestion and metabolism)
Main components of Reproductive System ovaries or testes and associated organs
Reproductive System Function Gamete production; promotion of fertilization; support of developing embryo
Main components of Nervous System - Brain - Spinal cord - nerves - sensory organs
Nervous System Function coordination of body activities; detection of stimuli and formulation of responses to them
Main components of Integumentary System skin and its derivatives
Integumentary System Function protection against mechanical injury, infection, dehydration, and thermoregulation
Main components of Skeletal System Skeleton ( bones, tendons, ligaments, cartilage)
Skeletal System Function Body support, protection of internal organs, movement
Main components of Muscular System Skeletal muscles
Muscular System Function Locomotion and other movement
epithelial tissues cover the outside of the body and line organs and cavities within the body
Types of epithelial tissues - stratified squamous - pseudostratified columnar - simple squamous - simple columnar - cuboidal
stratified squamous -multilayered and regenerates rapidly - new cells formed by division near the basal surface push outward, replacing cells that are sloughed off
Pseudostratified columnar - single layer of cells varying in height and the position of their nuclei - forms mucous membranes that lines portions of the respiratory tract
simple squamous -single layer of platelike cells that form a simple squamous epithelium functions in the exchange of material by diffusion - thin and leaky, lines blood vessels and the air sacs of the lungs
simple columnar large, brick-shaped cells of simple columnar epthelia are often found where secretion or active absorption is important
cuboidal epithelium dice-shaped cells specialized for secretion, makes up the epithelium of kidney tubules and many glands, including the thyroid gland and salivary glands
Connective Tissue consisting of a sparse population of cells scattered through an extracellular matrix, holds many tissues and organs together and in place
fibroblasts secrete fiber proteins
macrophages engulf foreign particles and any cell debris by phagocytosis
Types of Connective Tissue - Loose - Fibrous - Bone - Adipose - Cartilage - Blood
Loose connective tissue - most widespread - binds epithelia to underlying tissues and holds organs in place
Fibrous connective tissue -dense with collagenous fibers - tendons= attach muscles to bones - ligaments= connect bones at joints
Bone - mineralized -osteoblasts= bone forming cells deposit a matrix of collagen - Ca, Mg, P ions combine into hard mineral -osteon= repeating units that has concentric layers of the mineralized matrix, which are deposited around a central canal
Adipose Tissue - specialized loose connective tissue that stores fat - pads and insulates body and stores fuel
Cartilage - collagenous fibers embedded in a rubbery protein- carbohydrate complex - chondrocytes secrete collagen and chondroitin sulfate, which make cartilage strong and flexible - cartilage remains disks
Blood - liquid extracellular matrix called plasma ( water, salts, and dissolved proteins) - Suspended in plasma: erythrocytes, leukocytes, platelets
Types of Muscle Tissue - Skeletal - Smooth - Cardiac
Skeletal muscle - striated muscle responsible for voluntary movements - consists of bundles of long cells
Smooth muscle - lack striation, found in the walls of the digestive tract, urinary bladder, arteries, and other internal organs - involuntary body activities
Cardiac muscle - forms contractile of heart - striated like skeletel - branched fibers that interconnect via intercalated disks, which relay signals from cell to cell and help synchronize heart contraction
Nervous Tissue -receipt, processing, and transmission of information - contains neurons which transmit nerve impulses
Neurons - basic unit of nervous system - receives nerve impulses from other neurons via its cell body and multiple extensions called dendrites - neurons transmit impules to neurons, muscles, or other cells via extensions
Glia help nourish, insulate, and replenish neurons, and modulate neuron function
hormones the signaling molecules that are broadcast throughout the body by the endocrine system
regulator internal mechanisms to control internal change in the face of external fluctuation
conformer allows its internal condition to change in accordance with external changes in the particular variable
homeostasis maintenance of internal balance
What are the two types of feedback in homeostasis? negative and positive
negative feedback a control mechanism that "damps" its stimulus
positive feedback a control mechanism that amplifies the stimulus
acclimatization an animals physiological adjustment to changes in its external environment
thermoregulation process by which animals maintain their body temperature within a normal range
endothermic warmed mostly by heat generated by metabolism
ectothermic gain most of their heat from external sources
countercurrent exchange the transfer of heat (or solutes) between fluids that are flowing in opposite directions
metabolic rate the sum of all the energy an animal uses in a given time interval
basal metabolic rate (BMR) the minimum metabolic rate of a non growing endotherm that is at rest, has an empty stomach, and is not experiencing stress
standard metabolic rate (SMR) the metabolic rate of a fasting, nonstressed ectotherm at rest at a particular temperature
torpor a physiological state of decreased activity and metabolism
Hibernation long term torport that is an adaptation to winter cold and food scarcity
Created by: savepeople
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