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Genetics

Vocabulary 7

TermDefinition
Genetics the study of heredity and the variation of inherited characteristics.
Heredity the passing on of physical or mental characteristics genetically from one generation to another.
Alleles possible forms of a gene
Trait is a feature of an organism
Dominant An allele or a gene that is expressed in an organism's phenotype, masking the effect of the recessive allele or gene when present.
Recessive is a gene that can be masked by a dominant gene. In order to have a trait that is expressed by a recessive gene, such as blue eyes, you must get the gene for blue eyes from both of your parents.
Genotype is the set of genes in our DNA which is responsible for a particular trait.
Phenotype- The physical appearance or biochemical characteristic of an organism as a result of the interaction of its genotype and the environment.
Homozygous having identical alleles for a single trait.
Heterozygous -Genes come in pairs, called alleles, and each pair is located in a specific position (or locus) on a chromosome
Punnett square is a square diagram that is used to predict the genotypes of a particular cross or breeding experiment. It is named after Reginald C.
Mutation occurs when a DNA gene is damaged or changed in such a way as to alter the genetic message carried by that gene.
Autosome(s) Any chromosome not considered as a sex chromosome, or is not involved in sex determination. It occurs in pairs in somatic cells and singly in sex cells (gametes) Supplement
Sex chromosome An allosome is a chromosome that differs from an ordinary autosome in form, size, and behavior
Sex-linked A particularly important category of genetic linkage has to do with the X and Y sexchromosomes.
Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA) is a molecule that contains the instructions an organism needs to develop, live and reproduce
Ribonucleic Acid (RNA) A nucleic acid that is frequently single-stranded and folded onto itself, and composed of repeating nucleotide units of ribose sugar, phosphate group, and nitrogenous base.
Replication The process of duplicating or producing an exact copy of a polynucleotide strand such as DNA
Nitrogenous bases is simply a nitrogen-containing molecule that has the same chemical properties as a base
Nucleotide is one of the structural components, or building blocks, of DNA and RNA. A nucleotide consists of a base
Created by: 1012639