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Science Vocabulary12

Science Words To Learn

TermDefinition
Genetics the study of heredity and the variation of inherited characteristics.
Heredity the passing on of physical or mental characteristics genetically from one generation to another.
Alleles one of two or more alternative forms of a gene that arise by mutation and are found at the same place on a chromosome.
Trait a distinguishing quality or characteristic, typically one belonging to a person.
Dominant most important, powerful, or influential trait or gene.
Recessive relating to or denoting heritable characteristics controlled by genes that are expressed in offspring only when inherited from both parents
Genotype the genetic constitution of an individual organism
Phenotype the set of observable characteristics of an individual resulting from the interaction of its genotype with the environment.
Homozygous having two identical alleles of a particular gene or genes.
Heterozygous having two different alleles of a particular gene or genes
Punnett square a square diagram that is used to predict the genotypes of a particular cross or breeding experiment.
Mutation the changing of the structure of a gene, caused by the alteration of single base units in DNA, or the deletion, insertion, or rearrangement of larger sections of genes or chromosomes.
Autosome(s) any chromosome that is not a sex chromosome.
Sex chromosome a chromosome involved with determining the sex of an organism, typically one of two kinds.
Sex-linked tending to be associated with one sex or the other.
Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA) a self-replicating material which is present in nearly all living organisms as the main constituent of chromosomes. It is the carrier of genetic information.
Ribonucleic Acid (RNA) a nucleic acid present in all living cells. Its principal role is to act as a messenger carrying instructions from DNA for controlling the synthesis of proteins.
Replication the action of copying or reproducing something.
Nitrogenous bases is an organic molecule with a nitrogen atom that has the chemical properties of a base.
Nucleotide a compound consisting of a nucleoside linked to a phosphate group. Nucleotides form the basic structural unit of nucleic acids such as DNA.
Created by: 1011018