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Population Ecology


population ecology the study of populations in relation to their environment
population ecology explores biotic and abiotic factors influence the abundance, dispersion, and age structure of populations
population a group of individuals of a single species living in the same general area
How are populations described? boundaries and size
size the number of individuals living within those boundaries
density population is the number of individuals per unit area or volume
Dispersion the pattern of spacing among individuals within the boundaries of the population
mark-recapture method estimate size of wildlife populations
immigration the influx of new individuals from other areas
emigration the movement of individuals out of a population and into other locations
Dispersion patterns - clumped - uniform - random
clumped individuals are aggregated in patches
uniform pattern of dispersion may result from direct interactions between individuals in the population
random position of each individual in a population is independent of other individuals
demography study of vital statistics of population and how they change over time
demographics - birth - death - migration
life table summarizes the survival and reproduction rates of individuals in specific age-groups within a population
To construct a life table, researchers often follow the fate of a ____. cohort
cohort a group of individuals of the same age, from birth until all of the individuals are dead
survivorship curve a plot of the proportion or numbers in a cohort still alive at each age
survivorship curve types 1. type 1 2. typ 2 3. type 3
type 1 flat at the start, reflecting low death rates during early and middle life, and then drops steeply as death rates increase among older age-groups
type 3 drops sharply at the start, reflecting very high death rates for the young, but flattens out as death rates decline for those few individuals that survive the early period of die-off.
type 2 intermediate, with a constant death rate over the organism's life span
Two key factors populations not experiencing large amounts of immigration or emigration 1. survivorship 2. how population size changes over time
intrinistic rate of increase the per capita rate at which an exponentially growing population increases in size at each instant in time
carrying capacity symbolized by K, as the maximum population size that a particular environment can sustain
logistic population growth the per capita rate of population growth approaches zero as the population size nears the carrying capacity (K)
Life history evolutionary outcomes reflected in its development, physiology, and behavior
semelparity "one shot" pattern of big bang reproduction
iteroparity repeated reproduction
density independent a birth rate or death rate that does not change with population density
density dependent a death rate that increases with population density or a birth rate that falls with rising density
population dynamics influenced by many factors and in turn affect other species
Density- Dependent Regulation Mechanisms - competition for resources - disease - predation - territoriality - intrinistic factors - toxic wastes
Competition for Resources Increasing population density intensifies competition for nutrients and other resources, reducing reproductive rates.
Disease If the transmission rate of a disease increases as a population becomes more crowded, then the disease's impact is density dependent
Predation an important cause of density- dependent mortality if a predator captures more food as the population density of the prey increases
Territoriality can limit population density when space becomes the resource for which individuals compete
Intrinistic factors can regulate population size
Toxic wastes yeasts and ethanol
metapopulation immigration and emigration are important when a number of local populations are linked
demographic transition the movement from high birth and death rates toward low birth and death rates, which tends to accompany industrialization and improved living conditions
ecological footprint summarizes the aggregate land and water area required by each person, city, or nation to produce all the resources it consumes and to absorb all the waste it generates
Created by: savepeople
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