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Genetics- zoology

The term mutation was given by Hugo de vries
Father of mutation? Hugo de vries
Hugo de vries carried out his experiment on? Oenothera lamarckiana (evening primose plant)
Darwin used the term for mutation Sports
Who termed mutation as discontinuous variation? Bateson
Bateson termed mutation as ? Discontinuous variation
Father of modern genetics? Bateson
Mutation changes genotype/phenotype? Both
2 phenomenon to variation in DNA Recombination due tocrossing over during gametegenesis and mutation
Process of occurance of mutation Mutagenesis
An offspring in which mutation has occurrd is called? Mutant
The mutation causing agent is called? Mutagen
Example of a mutagen? UV radiations
A cancer causing gene? Oncogene
Is carcinogenic or somatic muatation inheritable? No
In somatic mutation a normal cell is transformed into? Cancerous cell that develops cancerous tumour
Somatic or carcinogenic mutation is the result of? Mutation caused in one’s lifespan due to defect in mitosis when the gene becomes malfunctioning in daughter cell and is changed into oncogene
Cancer causing agent is called? Carcinogen
All carcinogens are essentially mutagens but not all mutagens are carcinogens Hahhaaa
Two types of mutations? Macro/ chromosomal mutation and micro/ gene mutation
Two types of macro mutations? Quantitative and qualitative
Two types of quantitative mutations? Polyploidy and aneuploidy
Change within a single genome? Aneuploidy
Aneuploidy and polyploidy caused due to? Non segregation of chromosomes during anaphase 1 of gametogenesis
Quantative chromosomal dirorderis mostly seen in? Oogenesis in the female above 35years of age
Two types of aneuploidy? Monosomy and trisomy
Polyploidy is the result of the failure of? Cytokinesis after telophase stage
Polyploidy is often seen in? Plants
Down’s syndrome was first discribed by and in? Langdon down in 1866
Down’s syndrome is monosomy or trisomy? Trisomy
Down’s syndrome is due to the chromosome no.? Additional copy on chromosome number 21
Symptoms of down’s syndrome Short saturated small round head, palm crease, furrowed and protruding tongue, upward slanting eyes, low intelligence quotient (IQ), physical, psychomotor and mental retardation
Other name of palm crease? Simian crease
What happens in simian crease? One horizontal palm line instead of 2
Klinefelter’s syndrome is monosomy or trisomy? Trisomy
Klinefelter’s syndrome is on which chromosome? X trisomy (XXY)
Klinefelter’s is in? Males only
Turner’s syndrome is in?
Females only
Condition for klinefelter’s XXY trisomy
Condition for turner’s? XO
Features of klinefelter’s syndrome? Sterile, gynaemastia (breat development), reduced hair on body, absence of beard and moustache, reduced libido, ratio of arms and legs is 1:2 instead of 2:3 in which legs get longer
No. Of barr bodies in turner’s? 0
Number of barr bodies in klinefelter’s? 1
Characteristics of turner’s? Sterile female, webbed neck, underdevelopment of secondary sexual characteristics
Conition of turner’s? XO monosomy
Name the autosomal aneuploidic disorders Down’s syndrome, edward, patau
Down’s syndrome is also called? Mongolism and mongolian idiocy
Characteristics of edward syndrome? Trisomy on 18th chromosome (edward is 18 years old)
Characteristics of edward? Severe cardiovascular disorders, hare lip/clefted upper lip, may or may not have polydactylism, patient usually dies in early age
Conditions of patau syndrome? 13th chromosome trisomy
Characteristics of patau syndrome? Severe cardiovascular disorders, hare lip, essentially polydactyl, dies in early age
Change in number of allosomes results in? Sex- chromosomal aneuploidic disorders
Name all disorders due to change in heterosomes Klinefelter’s, turner’s, super or meta female and male
Other names of super male? Meta male, jacob’s syndrome, criminal syndrome
Characteristics of meta female? Excessively developed feminine characters, enlarged uterus, breasts, ovaries, clitoris of external genitalia may be of the size of penis
Is meta female fertile? Yes
Condition of meta female? XXX trisomy
Condition of jacob’s syndrome? XYY trisomy
No. Of barr bodies in criminal syndrome? 0
No. Of barr bodies in meta female? 2
Instead of barr body, meta male bas which body? F-body or F spot. It is stained Y chromosome by a fluorescent quinacrinedye
Characteristics of jacob’s syndrome Excess male characteristics, taller body, enlargement of genital organs m, raised libido, excessive hair on body, aggressive behaviour, fertile, more acne on face
Other names of sex chromosomes? Heterosomes and allosomes
In super male, Y chromosome is stained by? Quinacrinedye
Deletion of arm of its translocation results in Qualitative chromosomal disorders
Name the qualitative ch disorders? Cri-du chat syndrome, Prader-Willi syndrome, philadelphia syndrome
Other names of prader willi syndrome? Angelman syndrome and happy puppet syndrome
Other name of philadelphia syndrome CML, chronic myelogenous leukaemia
Condition for cri du chat Deletion mutation in p/ short arm of chromosome number 5
Condition for happy puppet? Deletion of q/long arm of chromosome 15
Philadelphia syndrome condition Reciprocal translocation pf the arm of chromosome number 9 on chromosome number 22, resulting in the formation of oncogene on 22 that produces blood cancer by the age of 21
Cat cry characteristics Severe cardiovascular disorder, kitten like cry, dies in early age
Angelman syndrome characteristics Ataxia (discoordinated movement of arms), nystagmus (dancing eyeball), frequent burst of laughter
What happens in philadelphia syndrome? Blood cancer by the age of 21
Which is the smallest chromosome of human body? 22 after y
1st chromosome to be sequenced completely? 22, all genes were discovered
Who sequenced the chromosome completely for the first time? HUGO/ HGP
Human genome carries how many genes? 30,000
99.9% nucleotide bases are similar in all people You’ll leave every one behind one day
How many nucleotides are there in one gene on an average? 3000
Largest human gene? Dystrophin with 2.4 million bases
Longest and shortest chromosome have how many genes? 1st- 2968 and y- 231 genes
Name the first animal animal to be completely sequenced Caenorhaditis elegans (nematode)
First plant to be completey sequenced Aribidopsis
How is malignant tumour or neoplasm formed? By abnormal mutant daughter cells
How are abnormal mutant daughter cells formed? Failure of mechanism to regulate metabolic activities of a cell
Does concerous cell have contact inhibition property? No
What is contact inhibition? Is a property by virtue of which normal cells’ contact with other cells inhibits their uncontrollable growth
Cancer cells do not have property of contact inhibition hence they form tumour All tumours are not cancerous or malignant but cancer is always a tumour
A cancer in which tumour is not formed? Leukaemia
Two types of tumours? Benign tumour and malignant tumour
What is the difference between two types of tumours? Benign remains confined to their original position and don’t spread causing a little damage while malignant tumour are a mass of poliferating cells. Malignant tumour is non capsulated, so it invades the adjoining tissues and grow to unlimited size, damag
Other names of malignant tumours Neoplastic or tumour cells
Last stage of cancer? Metastasis
Branch of science dealing with cancer? Oncology
Cancer causing gene Oncogene
What is oncogene? Oncogene is a mutant proto-oncogene
First oncogene was discovered by Bishop and varmus, who got nobel prize
All carcinogens are mutagens but all mutagens are not carcinogens
First oncogene to be discovered? Sec gene
Who got nobel prize for discovering src gene? Bishop and varmus
Types of carcinogens? Physical, chemical and biological
Cancer causing viruses? Oncogenic viruses
What type of genes do oncogenic viruses have? Viral oncogene
What are cellular or proto oncogene? Normal cells, which when stimulated convert into oncogene
Name physical oncogenes Alpha, beta particles, gamma rays, x rays and non ionising UV rays and temperature
What are the effects of ionising and non ionising radiation? Are physical carcinogens which cause DNA damage leading to neoplastic transformation
What is the effect of temperature as carcinogen? It becomes carcinogen in developing skin cancer in abdominal region of Kashmiris who use earthen heater
A chemical agent causing liver cancer Afflatoxin
Chemical agent causing prostate cancer Cadmium oxide
Agent causing cervical cancer Diethylstilbestrol, human papilloma virus (HPV)
A technique to detect cervical cancer Pap smear test
Pap smear test was discovered by? A greek scientist papanicolaou
Name the chemical carcinogens HNO2 (nitrous acid), 5-broom uracil, 2-aminopurines, mustard gas, phosgene, asbestos, soot, afflatoxin,cadmium oxide, diethylstilbestrol, polyvinyl chloride, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in tobacco smoke, pollutants in paint and iron mining
Nicotine functions as? Stimulant like acetylcholine
What are biological agents Virus and prions
Name 3 biological carcinogens Epstein- barr virus/ EB virus, human papilloma virus, prions
Name the diseases caused by the biological agents EB virus- burkett’s lymphoma, HPV- cervical cancer, prions-
Diseases caused by prions? Scrapie, BSE bovine spongiform encephalopathy, cruetzfeldt jacob’s disease (CJD), kuru/laughing death
Who discovered HPV as a causative agent for cervical cancer? Herald zur hausen
Who and when got nobel prize for discovering HPV? Herald zur hausen in 2008
What are prions? Prions are proteinaceous pathogenic particles. Abnormally folded protein.
Who discovered prions? Prusiner
Who and when got nobel prize for discovering prions? Prusiner in 1997
Kuru is observed in? Tribes of New Guinea and papua island, who ate human brains infected with prion or having cruetzfeldt-jacob’s disease (CJD)
Scrapie is observed in? Sheep and goats
Scrapie is characterised by? Severe itching
BSE is seen in Cows
What happens in mad cow disease Dementia in cow in which brain turns into sponge leading to death
CJD is seen in? Humans
CJD characteristics? Dementia- sponge- death due to eating beef of BSE diseased cows
Two types of cancer detection? Biopsy- living tissue and autopsy/ post-mortem- dead tissue
Name the types of biopsy Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC), pap smear test, Radiography (x rays), Computer tomography (CT), MRI (magnetic resonance imaging)
What are the techniques used to detect cancer of internal organs? CT, radiography, MRI
CT scanning was developed by? Allan cormarck and godfrey hounsefield
MRi involves the use of? Strong magnetic field and non ionising radiations
Use of mri? Physiological an pathological changes in living tissues, it can also help to study metabolic activity of the living tissue anf detect minute cancerous tumours in body
MRI was developed by? Bloch and purcell
MRi takes the images of? Water rich tissues
Can mri be used for teeth? Not for teeth bones and cartilage as they are water poor tissues
Techniques in molecular biology can detect genes in individuals with inherited suspectibility to certain cancers and be advised to avoid exposure to particular carcinogen
Can antibodies used to diagnose cancer? Yes, antibodies against certain specific antigens are used to detect certain cancer
Name Methods to treat cancer? Surgery, radiation therapy, immunotherapy, chemotherapy
Who gave the term chemotherapy? Paul ehrlich
Chemmotherapeutic drugs? Vincristine, Vinblastin, Taxol (These are for particular tumours)
Father of chemotherapy? Paul ehrlich
What is chemotherapy? Use of cytotoxic medicines
Vinblastin and vincristine are obtained from? Vinca rosea or catharanthus roseus or sadabahar plant
Taxol obtained from? Taxus baccata
What is anticancerous wonder drug Tacol
Most cancers are treated by combination of Surgery, radiotherapy, chemotherapy
How is immune system activated when tumours cells avoid to get detected and destroyed by immune systems Patients are given substances called biological response modifiers such as alpha interferon
Func of alpha interferon? Activates the immune system and help to destroy the tumour
Is MRI harmful? No it is non invasive and is not involved the use of radiations and instead use magnetic field
What is paget’s disease? 1. Breast cancer 2. Osteitis deformans (genetic recessive chromosome number 18)
Characteristics of a cancel cell or neoplastic cell? Immortal tissue, higher nutritional requirements, number of nucleoli more in nucleus, N:C is more, tendency to stick one on other, uncontrollable growth, no contact inhibition, deposits of igG- russel’s bodies or unna’s particle
Based on the tissue involved, name the types of cancer Carcinoma and sarcoma
80% cancers are? Carcinoma
Carcinoma involves which tissues? Epitheliul can be ectodermal, mesodermal and endodermal in origin
Common sites of carcinoma? Buccal cavity, lungs, alimentary canal, thyroid, throat, lungs, breast , liver, gall bladders, pancreas, prostate, penis, cervix , retina, skin
Cancer of retina is called? Retinoblastoma
Cancer of skin is called? Melanoma or hippocrate’s tumour
Most abundant female cancer in western countries and india Breast- w and cervical in indian females
Sarcoma involves What tissues? Mesenchyme mesodermal origin
Sarcoma is observed in what organs? Dermis, muscle, bones, granulocytes, blood
Name the examples of sarcoma Kaposi’s sarcoma (dermis), myoma, osteoma, myeloma (granulocytes), leukaemia (blood cancer), lymphoma (hodgkin and non hodgkin both)
Burkitt’s lymphoma is hodgkin or non hodgkin? Non hodgkin
Burkitt’s lymphoma is seen in? Africans
Burkitt’s lymphoma co exists with? Malaria
Largest human gene Dystrophin
Number of bases in the largest human gene? 2.4 million (2400kbp)
Mendelian disorders were studied for the first time by? Garrod
Other names of micro mutation? Gene mutation, point mutation, inborn metabolic error, mendelian disorders
What is macro mutation? Chromosomal mutation (quantitative and qualitative)
What is micromutation? Gene mutation (maybe due to the change in single nucleotide). Cause less harm
Micromutation results in Since each gene codes a single protein (or responsible for the synthesis of an enzyme) to carry out a metabolic reaction, inborn metabolic error occurs
What is pedigree analysis? Analysis of traits in several of generations of a family
Pedigree analysis is based on Heritability of characteristic features
Mendelian disorders are recessive or dominant? Can be eitger of the both
Name some autosomal recessice genetical sisorders Alkaptonuria, cystic fibrosis, riley day syndrome,galactosemia, sickle cell anaemia, colour blindness thalasaemia, hartnup’s disease, albinism, phenylketonuria, retinoblastoma, Wilson’s disease, tay sach’s disease, sever combined immuno deficiency (SCID)
Chromosome no. Of alkaptonuria 3
Cystic fibrosis 7
Riley day 9
Galactosemia 9
Sickle cell anaemia 11
Hartnup’s disease 11
Albinism 11
Phenylketonuria 12
Retinoblastoma 13
Wilson’s disease 13
Tay sach or infantile amourotic idiocy 15
severe combined immunodeficiency 20
Alpha thalassaemia 16
Beta thalassaemia 11
Delta thalassaemia 11
Alkaptonuria is also called? Black urine disease
Alkaptonuria is due to the deficiency of? Homogentistic acid oxidase
In alkaptonuria, what accumulates in the body? Homogentistic acid or alkapton
Homogentistic acid is accumulated in? Cartilages
Why is it called black urine disease? When exposed to light, urine turns black due to the presence of alkapton or homogentistic acid
Alkapton is called? Homogentistic acid
Immediate breakdown of tyrosine metabolism is? Alkapton
In which disease sweat, mucous and pancreatic juice becomes viscous and why? Cystic fibrosis because of impaired secretion of Na+ so the pancreatic duct may get obstructedby viscous juice and person may die during sleep due to suffocation- obstruction of trachea by mucous
Riley day syndrome Role gaale 9 no. Pe, insensitivity to pain
Galactosemia - galactose 1 phosphate uridyl transferase lacks (GALT) - extra galactose not converted into glucose - galactose deposition in brain - patient on milk free dieat - 9 chromosome
Sickle cell anaemia - chromosome no. 11 - three possible genotypes (HbAHbA, HbAHbS, HbSHbS) - only homozygous HbS-HbS diseased - substitution of Glu by Val on 6th position of beta globin chain of haemoglobin molecule due to single base substitution at 6th codon of beta globi
Why does sickle cell anaemia patient and sickle cell trait person doesn’t suffer from malaria? Lack of space, O2 deficiency, K+ ions deficiency
Give an example of natural selection Sickle cell anaemia, it’s TRAIT are common in africa coz it saves people from malignant malaria which is seen frequently.
Other names of thalassaemia? Microcytic anaemia, microcythaemia, cooley’s anaemia, Mediterranean anaemia, thalassaemia major. - it originated in Mediterranean region by deletion mutation
Difference between sickle cell and thalassaemia? Thalassaemia- few globins are synthesised caused due to defects in the synthesis of globin polypeptide- absence or reduced synthesis of one of the globin chains results in the excess of other Sickle cell anaemia- sysnthesis of incorrectly functioning glob
Effect of alpha, beta and delta thalassaemia? Alpha thalassaemia- abnormal dissociation curve, formation of abnormal excess beta chains which form tetramers called Haemoglobin H or Hb H of 4 beta chains Beta thalassaemia- alpha haemoglobin bind to cell membranes of RBC, membrane damage and formation
What is alpha thalassaemia? - involves 2 genes HBA1 and HBA2, at 16 chromosome and 4 allele - decreased production of alpha and inc production of beta chain in adults and gamma in new borns - excess beta forms abnormal tetramers called Haemoglobin H or Hb H of 4 beta chains - abnor
Beta thalassaemia? - HBB gene on chromosome 11 Thalassaemia major or beta not- no beta chains synthesis Beta internedia or beta positive- some beta chains synthesis, normal life - no tetramer formation, RBC membrane destruction and toxic aggregations
Delta thalassaemia - 3% Haemoglobin are there with alpha and delta chains - just like beta, mutations occur affecting ability of this gene to produce delta chains, get reduced - haemolytic anaemia
What is hartnup’s disease - chromosome number 11 - nephrons fail to reabsorb amino acid tryptophan from urine - tryptophan- inherent source of Vit B5 - deficiency of vit causing PEllagra
What is albinism? - chromosome no. 11 - tyrosinase is lacking - tyrosin not converted into dopa and melanin - lack of pigmentation - patient called albino - patient also suffers from photophobia
What is phenylketonuria or ketonuric idiocy or PKU? - chromosome 12 - lacking phenylalanine hydroxylase - phenylalanine not converted in tyrosine - tyrosine accumulation in blood and brain in the form of phenylpyruvic acid causing DEMENTIA and IDIOCY - phenyl pyruvic acid in urine- turning FeCl3 blue - al
What is idiocy? Mental retardation
What is retinoblastoma - chromosome number 13 - cancerous tumour in retina
What is Wilson’s disease - chromosome 13 - lack of plasma protein ceruloplasmin Ceruloplasmin helps in copper transportation in conjugated state - deposition of Cu in liver and brain causing hepatolenticular degeneration
What is the characteristic of Wilson’s? Brown Kayser fleischer ring in sclera
Wilson’s disease results in? Hepatolenticular degeneration
Tay sachs disease is also called? Infantile amourotic idiocy - chromosome 15 - enzyme beta N acetyl hexosaminidase A (HEXA A) lacks - intermediate product of fatty acid metabolism are deposited in brain causing dementia - in jews
What is SCiD? - severe combined immunodeficiency - chromosome 20 - enzyme adenosine deaminase (ADA) lacks - adenosine not broken during purine metabolism of WBC - destruction of WBC and hence severe immunodeficiency - boy in the bubble- david vetter- 12 years
First treatment of SCID? Through gene therapy - ashantidesliva in 1990- patient - doctor- french anderson
Name the diseases caused by parasitic protozoan?
What is pre patent period? Time of period between the day of infection to the day of appearance of metacryptozoites in blood
Ppre patent period for plasmodium vivax and malarie Vivax- 8-10 days Malarie- 10-12 days
Infective stage of plasmodium in human and anopheles?
Name the autosomal dominant genetic disorders Hutchinson gliford progeria (HGP) syndrome, huntington’s chorae/ St. vitus dance/ mount’s syndrome, ehler danlos syndrome, tylosis, myotonic dystrophy (5)
Hutchinson’s glifford progeria syndrome Chromosome 1, faster ageing, dies as old by 15 yrs age, always a fresh case
Huntington’s chorae also called? St. Vitus dance, mount’s syndrome
Mount’s syndrome 4 chromosome, - deficiency of GABA (gamma aminobutyric acid which inhibitory neurostransmitter) in brain - ataxia/ bizzare grimacing by 50 yrs or earlier - dies in advanced stage of disease
Ehler danlos syndrome -rubber man syndrome - 5 chromosome - abnormallaity in connective tissue - collagen protein not synthesid properly - hyperstretchibility of skin and heper mobility of joints
Tylosis Chromosome 17 Thickening of skin in palm and sole
Myotonic dystrophy -effects several systems in the body -muscular dystrophy, cataract, heart conduction defects, hotmonal disorders and MYOTONIA
What is myotonia Delayed relaxation or prolonged contraction of skeletal muscles
Name other autosomal dominant disorders Polydactylism, syndactilsm, brachydactylism, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, migraine, cataract, deafness, blindness, squint, clefted upper lip (11)
Ability to taste PTC or phenylthiocarbamide is? Dominant
Dominant blood groups? A, B, AB, Rh
Homozygous chromosome ? Same trait and same character, same loci on homologous chromosome
Heterozygous Same character, different trait, same loci on homologous chromosome
P arm of X chromosome is longer than p arm of Ychromosome. - have genes for different character - single copy : hemizygous - non homologous
Q arm of Y and X is same - two copies of same character -homozygous or heterozygous - q of X and Y are homologous in both sexes
X chromosome was discovered by and in? Henking as ‘x body’ in 1891
What is X linked inheritance? Inheritance of a gene present on p arm of X chromosome maybe dominant or recessive
X linked recessive disorders are commonly seen in? Males becoz of hemizygous condition and in female only in homozygous condition x
What is digenic genes? Which show criss cross inheritance Means gene is expressed only in homozygous
Name the X linked recessive disorders Haemophilia, colourblindness, myopia/short sightedness, G-6PD deficiency, duchenne’s muscular dystrophy, lesch nyhan syndrome (6)
Haemophilia was studied for the first time by? John otto
Pedigree analysis or geneology of haemophilia was carried first time by? Haldane
Haemophilia - a single protein of cascade of proteins involved in blood clotting is not synthesised - blood clotting factor 8 causes haemophilia A - ‘“ factor 9 - haemophilia B - delayed clotting of blood - gene in queen victoria’s family - royal or bleeder’s diseas
How many of males and females suffer from colourblindness? Female- 0.4% Male- 8% Red and green - gene for normal vision is dominant
All recessive c linked disorders show criss cross inherited
G-6PD deficiency? Lack of glucose 6 phosphate dehydrogenase enzyme - haemolytic anaemia due to accumulation of H2O2 - pateint does not suffer from malaria
H2O2 in RBC is converted into water by? Glutathione peroxide and in turn glutathione peroxide gets oxidised which is to be reduced by glutathione reductase - glutathione reductase converts NADPH2 into NADP and NADP converts glucose 6 phosphate into phosphogluconic acid by glucose 6 phosphate d
Duchenne’s muscular dystrophy Disorder of striated muscles - dystrophin protein not synthesised - paralysis of these muscles - patient dies by 21 yrs
Lesch nyhan syndrome Self destructive disorder - chees his lips and fingers in anger to gain sympathy
X linked dominant is seen in? Equal proportion in both the sexes. Problem is aggravated in female if it’s homozygous
X linked dominant disorder? Defected enamel
Holandric genes?
Genes are passed only from dad to son (y ch)
Y linked inheritance - genes located on p arm of y - no cross over with x - holandric genes - p arm of y also has SRY gene
Why does y not cross over X chromosome? Hemizygous condition
Name a few y linked disorders Generalized or localized hypertrivhosie
Where is sry gene located On p arm of Y chromosome which codes the protein TDF (testes determining factor) responsible for male characteristics sexual
What will happen if sry genevis absent on Y chromosome? - sry gene is responsible for maleness and not Y chromosome - patient is genotypically male but has feminine characteristics - if sry comes to c chromosome, she carries male characteristics
Name the theories of sex determination and given by? 1. Heterogametic theory by henking and Mcclung 2. Hormonal theory by crews (hen) and lillie ( freemartin) 3. Gene balance theory ( CB bridges) 4. Environmental theory by baltzer
Heterogametic theory Heterogametic partner determines the sex of child - given by mc clung and hencking
Two types of male hetergamy? 1. XO (male) and female - XX {grasshopper} 2. XX (female) and XY (male) {drosophila and man and other mammals} Although drosophila carries XX and XY chromosomes but sex is not determined by x or y since gene for maleness is on autosome
In large number of jnsects which method of hetergamy is observed? XO male heterogamy, that is all eggs carry an additional X besides autosomes whereas in sperms, half carry X and O other half (Grasshopper) no. Of chromosomes are not same in male and female
Hetergametic female is observed in? Birds where there is Z and W in place of x and y. And total number of chromosomes is same in both sexes
Heyerogametic female? Ova produce two types of sex chromosomes- Z and W. it is of two type- 1. ZZ (male) and ZO (female)- butterfly and moth 2. ZZ (male) and ZW (female)- fishes, amphibians, reptiles, birds and most animals
Hormonal theory of sex determination Study of crews- hen transformed into cock Study of lillie- birth of freemartin which is a female and male cow twin where testosterone released in male calf is reached to female calf embryo through common blood circulation of placenta and hence has phenoty
In hormonal theory, there’s a sex reversal which is seen phenotypically but not genotypically
Gene balance theory By CG bridges - theory is based upon the ratio of x chromosome to no. Of sets of autosomal chromosomes will actually determine the sex - genes for femaleness is located on X but for maleness it is on autosome - in drosophila melanogaster
What is gyandomorph These are sex mosaic drosophila, have half body male (X/AA) and other half female (X/A) - gyandomorph is different from intersex
Environmental theory? Given by baltzer Based on development of bonellia and credipula
Tell about bonellia - it is a polychaete - has microscopic male living like a parasite inside female body - fertilisation takes place within female body - trochophore larva comes out of her body - larva development in water- develops into female - in proboscis of mother- fem
Sex determination in credipula - is a marine molluscan - releases sperms and leads male life first half of lifetime and in second is transformed into female to produce ova - sex reversal in due to environmental factors
What is human karyotype Whole chromosomal makeup of human population Studied by tjio and levan for the first time Divided into seven groups
Human karyotype is divided into how many and on what basis? Seven groups on the basis of structure of chromosomes and the position of centromere as per denvor and London conferences (3273322) abcdefg
Give an example of sex influenced inheritance Gene for sex influenced inheritance is located on autosome but is expressed only in presence of hormone testosterone in both sexes - pattern baldness or androgenic alopecia
Another name of pattern baldness and how is it caused? Androgenic alopecia. - caused due to sex influenced inheritance through autosomal DOMINANT gene, sufficient to express in male but in female , it can be expressed in homozygous.
Genes for sex influenced and sex limited inheritance may be present genotypically in both but are expressed in different manner due to testosterone and estrogen
X chromosome was discovered by? Henking
Name the helminth disease? Taeniasis (pork and beef), cysticercosis, schistosomia/ bliharzia (3)
Causative helminths of helminth diseases? 1. Pork taeniasis - taenia solium 2. Beef taeniasis- taenia saginata 3. Cysticercosis- cystercercus larva (bladder worm) 4. Schistosomiasis/ bilharziasis- schistoma/ bilharzia (blood fluke)
Name the organ affected by platyhelminth disease Taeniasis- small intestine Cystercercosis- muscular limb, back, chest, hips, tongue, BRAIN Schistosomiasis- blood vessels of urninary bladder
Vector of platyhelminth diseases Pork taeniasis- undercooked measly (infected by cystercerccus larva) pork Beef taeniasis- undercooked measly beef Cystercercosis- infected pork or beef Schistosomiasis/ bilharziasis- larva cercaria penetrates through skin when exposed to contaminated wate
Symptoms of taeniasis Polyphagia, salivation, gritting of teaath at night,!IBS, abdominal pain, enuresis
Symptoms of cystercercosis Painful movement of tongue, limbs etc (affected part), Man is regarded to be dead end since all the larva get calcified and degenerated after 3 months even if it is not cuted
Symptoms of schistosomiasis/ bilharziasis Lower abdominal pain, lose of control of urination
Grasshopper male and female has how many chromosome Male- 23 Female- 24
Human genome project was officially started in? 1990
Pedigree Amanda is applicable for?
Created by: Jasmeetkamdar



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